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Strongyloidiasis, hookworm, and other gut strongyloid nematodes 

Strongyloidiasis, hookworm, and other gut strongyloid nematodes
Chapter:
Strongyloidiasis, hookworm, and other gut strongyloid nematodes
Author(s):

Michael Brown

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198746690.003.0176
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date: 02 March 2021

Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworms are common soil-transmitted nematodes in tropical and subtropical regions. After the organisms penetrate exposed skin, most infections are asymptomatic, but heavy infections can result in significant morbidity. The roundworm S. stercoralis infects an estimated 30 million to 100 million people. Infection is persistent and may present decades after exposure. Diagnosis is usually by microscopy or culture of stool; serology is useful as a screening test. Treatment is typically with ivermectin or albendazole. Improved sanitation and appropriate footwear can reduce the acquisition of infection. Hookworm infections, mainly caused by Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus, affect more than 500 million people, predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Population-based control programmes, using single-dose antihelmintic therapies, aim to reduce anaemia, and improve childhood growth and cognitive development in countries with high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths.

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