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Cutaneous filariasis 

Cutaneous filariasis
Chapter:
Cutaneous filariasis
Author(s):

Gilbert Burnham

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198746690.003.0173
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date: 07 March 2021

The cutaneous filariae are transmitted by biting insects. Some, such as Onchocerca volvulus, are transmitted by Simulium flies and can cause debilitating conditions such as visual impairment and disfiguring skin conditions. The Mansonella infections are transmitted either by Simulium flies or biting midges (genus Culicoides), but consequences of infections are general mild. Loa loa is transmitted by the bite of the Chrysops fly. Loaisis is manifest by adult worms periodically passing beneath the sclera and by subcutaneous swellings, usually of the forearm. Onchocerciasis, or river blindness, historically occurred in 34 countries in Africa, Yemen, and Latin America. It is estimated that 18 million people are infected, and 87 million at risk of infection. Most are in Africa. Mass treatment with ivermectin has now greatly lessened the ocular burden of infection.

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