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Nicholas J. White

, and Arjen M. Dondorp

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date: 28 February 2021

An estimated 1.1 billion people residing in the tropical world are at high risk for malaria. In 2016, there were an estimated 216 million cases of malaria worldwide causing 445,000 deaths. Africa accounted for 90% of the cases and 91% of deaths; around 70% of the deaths were in children aged less than 5 years. Malaria is transmitted by the female anopheles mosquito and six species of Plasmodium commonly cause malaria in humans: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale (two species), P. malariae, and P. knowlesi. P. falciparum, the most pathogenic species accounts for 99% of malaria deaths. First line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria is with artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs).

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