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Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection 

Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection
Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection

Romanee Chaiwarith

, Khuanchai Supparatpinyo

, and Thira Sirisanthana

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date: 26 February 2021

Talaromyces (formerly Penicillium) marneffei was first isolated from bamboo rats Rhizomys sinensis in Vietnam in 1956. The fungus is endemic in Southeast Asia, north-east India, south China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. Fewer than 40 cases of infection with T. marneffei were reported before the HIV epidemic. Since then, the incidence of disseminated T. marneffei infection has increased markedly. Talaromyces marneffei infection is very rare in the immunocompetent but one of the most common opportunistic infections in HIV-infected people in Southeast Asia, north-eastern India, southern China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. Presentation is usually with fever, chills, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly, with skin lesions—most commonly papules with central necrotic umbilication—in two-thirds of cases. Diagnosis is made by microscopy of bone marrow aspirate or biopsy specimens. Standard treatment, which is usually effective, is with amphotericin B followed by itraconazole.

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