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Paracoccidioidomycosis 

Paracoccidioidomycosis
Chapter:
Paracoccidioidomycosis
Author(s):

M.A. Shikanai-Yasuda

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198746690.003.0155
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date: 28 February 2021

Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic endemic mycosis caused by dimorphic fungus found in soil and in a variety of animals, and transmitted to humans by inhalation. It is restricted geographically to Central and South America, where it is the most common endemic chronic human mycosis, acquired in rural and periurban areas. In its chronic form is is more frequqnt in men than women (10:1) and in the acute form, it is equally distributed among boys and girls (children, adolescents and young adults) areas. It involves the lung and mucous membranes, adrenal, gastrointestinal, central nervous system and other organs in thechronic form and the phagocytic mononuclear system in the acute form. Diagnosis is made by direct microscopy or culture from sputum, plus histopathology.and/or serology, which is useful for therapeutic control. Treatment is required for long courses of oral drugs (itraconazole or sulfamethoxazole– trimethoprim) for non severe cases) or intravenous amphotericin B or other amphotericin formulations in severe cases followed by oral drugs.for severe cases. Sequels are represented by microstomia, laryngeal/tracheal/bronchial stenosis, pulmonary emphysema/fibrosis, respiratory insufficiency, and cor pulmonale.

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