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Brucellosis 

Brucellosis
Chapter:
Brucellosis
Author(s):

Juan D. Colmenero

, and Pilar Morata

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198746690.003.0126
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date: 26 February 2021

Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease. It remains endemic in the Mediterranean basin, Northern Africa, the Middle East, Western Europe, Central and South America, sub-Saharan Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Central Asia. There are three species especially pathogens for humans; Brucella melitensis (most commonly associated with goats, sheep, and camels), B. abortus (cattle) and B. suis (pigs). Brucellosis is usually transmitted by direct contact with infected animals, by ingestion of untreated dairy products, and less frequently by inhalation (laboratory workers) or inoculation (veterinary). Symptoms are very non-specific and heterogeneous, hence epidemiological information collected in the clinical history is very important. Definite diagnosis always requires laboratory confirmation, either by isolating the organism from blood, body fluids or tissues, or by demonstration of high titres of specific antibodies or seroconversion.

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