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Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers 

Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers
Chapter:
Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers
Author(s):

Christopher M. Parry

, and Buddha Basnyat

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198746690.003.0113
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date: 25 February 2021

Typhoid and paratyphoid fever (the enteric fevers) are caused by specific serovars of the Gram-negative bacillus, Salmonella enterica. Sources of typhoid transmission are excreting chronic or convalescent carriers and the acutely infected, with transmission occurring through contamination by carriers of food or water by effluents containing infected faeces or urine. Global estimates have varied between 12 and 27 million cases of enteric fever in the world each year, almost all in low- and middle-income countries, with about 200,000 deaths. Aside from supportive care, antibiotic therapy reduces mortality and complications and shortens the illness. Antibiotic resistance is a common and increasing problem, hence the choice of antibiotic should be informed by knowledge of likely local susceptibility.

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