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Richard D.W. Hain

and Satbir Singh Jassal

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date: 28 July 2021

Dyspnoea is defined as the sense that breathing has become unpleasant. It is therefore, by definition, a subjective phenomenon. It also means that many different factors can contribute to dyspnoea. The principles that underlie the management of dyspnoea are the same as those underlying the management of any other symptom, namely, holistic, rational, and balancing burden and benefit. This chapter considers the pathophysiology of dyspnoea, alongside possible interventions and management. There is also a section on decision-making, focusing on the nature of engagement with the family in a subjective condition.

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