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Norovirus 

Norovirus
Chapter:
Norovirus
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198729228.003.0094
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date: 26 June 2019

Noroviruses are currently recognized as the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with contaminated food and/or water consumption in industrialized countries, and second to rotavirus as the cause of childhood gastroenteritis. Individuals are infected many times throughout their lifetime, most of which are asymptomatic infections, with fewer episodes of moderate to severely symptomatic infections which are particularly significant in young children living in resource-deprived countries. Symptomatic norovirus infections are, in general, less severe than rotavirus infections in children which do not preclude that severe norovirus infections, characterized by intense vomiting, watery diarrheoa, and fever, leading to shock and death occur worldwide. Nearly 200 000 norovirus-associated deaths are estimated to occur every year in children. Norovirus of the genogroup GII.4 have largely predominated throughout the past years, and prevention may be possible through vaccination using virus-like particles.

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