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Helicobacter pylori 

Helicobacter pylori
Chapter:
Helicobacter pylori
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198729228.003.0072
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date: 19 November 2019

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is common in the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Central and South America. Most people in these regions are infected when they are young children. Children from Europe who visit friends or relatives in these countries are particularly at risk of infection. Person-to-person spread is the commonest method of transmission in developed countries. Food-borne outbreaks can also occur. The severity of symptoms of hepatitis A increase with age; young children are usually asymptomatic. Diagnosis is made during the acute illness by the presence of anti-HAV immunoglobulin M, with anti-HAV immunoglobulin G appearing shortly after. Hepatitis A is an acute self-limiting disease, and most cases do not need treatment. HAV infection is prevented by good hygiene, especially handwashing, safe drinking water, and good food hygiene. Vaccination can be used to prevent hepatitis A in high-risk groups.

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