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Hand, foot, and mouth disease 

Hand, foot, and mouth disease
Chapter:
Hand, foot, and mouth disease
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198729228.003.0071
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date: 26 June 2019

Helicobacter pylori is a non-invasive Gram-negative spiral organism that colonizes gastric mucosa. It preferentially colonizes the gastric antrum, although it may also be found throughout the stomach. It occupies an inhospitable niche, at a site free from other bacterial colonization, where it has to survive for very long periods at low pH. It is predominantly found within, and immediately beneath, the gastric mucous layer where there is less acid than in the gastric lumen, and little proteolytic enzyme activity. H. pylori affects over 50% of the world’s population, making it one of the commonest chronic bacterial infections. There are major differences in the prevalence both within and between countries, e.g. 40% of 50 year olds are infected in the United Kingdom, compared to 85% of 2 year olds in resource-poor countries. In general, prevalence increases with age and is strongly associated with poor sanitation and crowded living conditions.

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