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Dermatophytoses: tinea capitis, corporis, pedis, and unguium 

Dermatophytoses: tinea capitis, corporis, pedis, and unguium
Chapter:
Dermatophytoses: tinea capitis, corporis, pedis, and unguium
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198729228.003.0062
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date: 17 June 2019

Diphtheria is a vaccine-preventable disease that is characterized by exudative pharyngitis associated with anterior cervical adenopathy and, in the most severe cases, respiratory compromise and toxicity. Humans are the sole reservoir for the organism. While immunization is highly effective, even immunized patients can occasionally become diphtheria carriers or present with manifestations of mild disease. Diagnosis is often based on clinical suspicion alone because of the risk of sudden deterioration and the need to institute therapy as early as possible. Treatment consists of prompt initiation of antimicrobial therapy, as well as administration of antitoxin. Isolation of patients and use of appropriate precautions for the prevention of further cases are critical. Follow-up cultures and immunization of convalescent patients are strongly recommended. Future work in this area may lead to the development of humanized antibodies to the toxin, which could eliminate the use of equine antibodies, which can cause serious side effects. From a public health perspective, it is imperative to maintain thorough surveillance for new cases of diphtheria, particularly in areas where adult immunity to the toxin may be waning.

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