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Cytomegalovirus 

Cytomegalovirus
Chapter:
Cytomegalovirus
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198729228.003.0061
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date: 17 November 2019

Dermatophytes are a group of fungi that commonly cause skin, hair, and nail infections in humans. In children, the commonest affected areas are the scalp (tinea capitis), body (tinea corporis), feet (tinea pedis or athlete’s foot), and nails (onychomycosis). The commonest species are Trichophyton and Microsporum. Dermatophyte infections can be acquired by direct contact with human or animal host or indirect contact with infected articles such as clothing, combs, shoes, towels, and floor surface. The clinical presentation varies, depending on the site of infection, immunological host response, and actual fungus species. Clinical diagnosis is best confirmed by direct microscopic examination of potassium hydroxide preparation of skin scrapings, hair samples, and nail clippings. Fungal cultures aid in identifying the culprit organism but take up several weeks. Treatment with topical antifungal preparations is usually sufficient for smaller affected areas on the body and feet. Scalp involvement mostly requires oral systemic therapy. Onychomycosis is also usually treated with oral antifungals capable of penetrating into the nail plate. The commonest agent used in Europe is itraconazole, with terbinafine, griseofulvin, and fluconazole used less frequently.

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