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Chlamydia pneumoniae infection 

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection
Chapter:
Chlamydia pneumoniae infection
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198729228.003.0054
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date: 18 November 2019

Chlamydia psittaci is an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria that may cause psittacosis, a worldwide distributed disease that tends to occur sporadically in any season. The main risk factor is exposure to birds (especially pigeons, parrots, and turkeys), but up to 20% of infected patients have no history of exposure. Psittacosis is an acute febrile respiratory infection with high fever, non-productive cough, headache, and malaise. Severe interstitial pneumonia can occur, particularly in the immunocompromised. Rare complications are pericarditis, myocarditis, endocarditis, hepatitis, and encephalitis. Diagnosis can be confirmed by demonstrating a fourfold increase in immunoglobulin G antibody titre determined by complement fixation testing between acute and convalescent specimens obtained 2–3 weeks apart, a single microimmunofluorescence IgM titre of 1:32 or greater, and isolation of the agent from the respiratory tract. Tetracyclines and macrolides for at least 10–14 days after defervescence are the drugs of choice. Future research should focus on awareness campaigns directed at professional health-care workers and the general public, as well as implementation of new diagnostic methods.

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