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Candidiasis 

Candidiasis
Chapter:
Candidiasis
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198729228.003.0051
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date: 18 November 2019

Cat scratch disease is a rare disease caused by Bartonella henselae, which occurs mainly in winter. Cat scratch inoculates the microorganism in the human skin, and no evidence of person-to-person transmission exists. In otherwise healthy people, the most important clinical manifestation is lymphadenopathy involving the nodes that drain the site of inoculation (usually axillary, cervical, epitrochlear, or inguinal nodes) following scratches on the hands and arm and preceded by a red skin papule at the presumed site of inoculation. Very rarely, systemic spread occurs, and complications (bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis hepatitis) are reported, mainly in immunocompromised patients. Serology, polymerase chain reaction, and lymph node biopsy are useful for diagnosis. Antibiotic treatment is recommended for patients with systemic disease and is mandatory for immunocompromised individuals. Macrolides, co-trimoxazole, rifampicin, ciprofloxacin, and parenteral gentamicin are all effective. Immunocompromised subjects should avoid close contact with cats, and, in all the individuals, sites of cat scratches should be immediately washed. Further research in clinical manifestations and sequelae, diagnostic tests, and the risk–benefit balance of antibiotic therapy is needed.

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