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Urinary tract infection 

Urinary tract infection
Chapter:
Urinary tract infection
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198729228.003.0039
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date: 26 June 2019

This chapter reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of the upper respiratory tract (i.e. the nose, sinuses, ears, pharynx, and larynx) infections in infants and children. Irrespective of the precise anatomic location of an upper respiratory tract infection, the aetiologic agent usually is one of the following viruses: rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, influenza and parainfluenza viruses, coronavirus, human metapneumovirus, and bocavirus. Rarely with common cold, rhinitis, and laryngotracheitis, but with increasing likelihood for sinusitis, tonsillopharyngitis, and acute otitis media, bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes (Lancefield group A beta-haemolytic Streptococcus), are involved. Accordingly, treatment is either symptomatic (proven or presumed viral aetiology) or by use of antibiotics (bacterial aetiology).

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