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Invasive fungal infection 

Invasive fungal infection
Chapter:
Invasive fungal infection
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198729228.003.0035
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date: 17 June 2019

Toxic shock syndrome is an acute febrile illness mediated by non-specific stimulation of the immune system by streptococcal or staphylococcal toxins acting as superantigen. Toxic shock syndrome presents with fever, rash, mucosal hyperaemia, and rapidly progressive toxic shock with multi-organ failure. Mortality is substantial and varies between 3% and 50%. Toxic shock syndrome caused by Staphylococcus aureus can be preceded by a minor focal infection. In streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, the mortality rate is substantially lower than in group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Treatment consists of supportive care, antibiotics (flucloxacillin for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus) and adjunctive treatment with clindamycin to inhibit toxin production, and intravenous immunoglobulin. Surgical intervention is recommended in the case of necrotizing fasciitis.

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