Show Summary Details
Page of

Infection control in the community 

Infection control in the community
Chapter:
Infection control in the community
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198729228.003.0019
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE (www.oxfordmedicine.com). © Oxford University Press, 2016. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 19 November 2019

Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are infections that present more than 48 hours after admission to hospital and are acquired as a result of health-care interventions. Around 10% of children treated in hospital will experience an HAI; the risk is highest in intensive care settings (neonatal and paediatric intensive care units) and lowest in general paediatrics wards. The commonest HAIs in children are respiratory tract and bloodstream infections. However, both the types and microbial causes of HAIs experienced by patients depend on their underlying conditions; immunocompromised children are particularly at risk of HAIs. Where good infection prevention and control are consistently embedded into clinical practice, a large proportion of HAIs are preventable. There are many elements to the prevention of HAIs, including: hospital design and cleanliness; effective decontamination of medical devices; prompt identification and isolation of infected patients; good hand hygiene; care of indwelling medical devices; immunization; and appropriate antimicrobial prescribing. All of this must be underpinned by policies, education, training, and an assurance framework. Infection surveillance is an important contributor to safe and high-quality health care. Surveillance allows comparison of infection rates within and between hospitals and early detection of increases in rates of infection, so that remedial control measures can be quickly implemented. Multicentre infection surveillance schemes for HAIs are particularly used in neonatology. Antibiotic resistance threatens the effective prevention and treatment of an ever increasing range of infections. Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a particular threat. Good infection prevention and control and antibiotic stewardship have a key role in controlling the emergence and spread of these bacteria.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.