Show Summary Details
Page of

Kingella kingae 

Kingella kingae
Chapter:
Kingella kingae
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198729228.003.0126
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE (www.oxfordmedicine.com). © Oxford University Press, 2016. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 26 June 2019

Kingella kingae (formerly named Moraxella kingii) is a β‎-haemolytic Gram-negative coccobacillus member of the Neisseriaceae family, which is being increasingly recognized as the commonest aetiology of skeletal system infections in young children. The organism colonizes the oropharyngeal epithelium and is transmitted from child to child through close personal contact. Day-care attendance increases the risk for K. kingae colonization and transmission. Colonizing K. kingae organisms may penetrate the respiratory mucosa during a viral respiratory infection and disseminate by the haematogenous route. In previously healthy children, over 95% of K. kingae infections are diagnosed between the ages of 6 and 48 months, representing the gap between vanishing maternally derived antibodies and the development of immunological maturity and the child’s own specific defences. Among children with underlying medical conditions, K. kingae disease may occur at older ages as well. The clinical presentation of K. kingae disease is often subtle; many patients are afebrile; leucocyte counts may be normal, and acute phase reactants may be in the normal range, underscoring the importance of a high index of suspicion. Skeletal system infections, and particularly septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and spondylodiscitis, are the commonest presentations of invasive K. kingae disease, followed by bacteraemia with no focus and endocarditis. The culture recovery of K. kingae is suboptimal. Detection can be improved by inoculation of synovial fluid and bone exudates into blood culture vials and use of novel nucleic acid amplification assays. The organism is usually susceptible to β‎-lactam antibiotics and, with the exception of severe cases of endocarditis, responds well to treatment, leaving no permanent sequelae.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.