Show Summary Details
Page of

Tuberculosis 

Tuberculosis
Chapter:
Tuberculosis
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198729228.003.0121
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE (www.oxfordmedicine.com). © Oxford University Press, 2016. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 17 June 2019

Despite recent progress in tuberculosis control, this disease remains an important public health problem globally. The emergence and spread of drug resistance are a major threat to the efforts for tuberculosis control. Tuberculosis in children accounts for about 6% of the total burden and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Childhood tuberculosis diagnosis is often based on non-specific clinical and radiological findings. Microbiological confirmation is usually not possible among children due to the difficulty in obtaining adequate specimens and because of the paucibacillary nature of the disease. The recently developed interferon-gamma release assays have comparable sensitivity but higher specificity, compared to the tuberculin skin test, and can be used in a complementary fashion. Recent advances include new methods for respiratory sample collection and the development of a new nucleic acid amplification test—the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Novel diagnostic approaches, including transcriptomics, are now being explored. Most tuberculosis cases in children can be treated with the combination of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, with or without ethambutol, for 2 months initially, followed by the administration of isoniazid and rifampicin for 4 months. Longer duration of treatment is required for tuberculosis meningitis and osteoarticular tuberculosis. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection includes isoniazid for 6–9 months or the combination of isoniazid and rifampicin for 3 months.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.