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Pneumococcal disease 

Pneumococcal disease
Chapter:
Pneumococcal disease
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198729228.003.0100
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date: 19 November 2019

Diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcal diseases) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have resulted in significant changes in the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease in all age groups. This chapter provides a concise update on the infections caused by S. pneumoniae, ranging from non-invasive diseases, such as otitis media and non-bacteraemic pneumonia, to severe invasive pneumococcal diseases such as meningitis. Ongoing challenges in the field, including the need for improved diagnostics, antibiotic resistance, and serotype replacement following the widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, are then discussed, and future research directions are summarized.

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