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Chronic fatigue syndrome 

Chronic fatigue syndrome
Chapter:
Chronic fatigue syndrome
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198729228.003.0010
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date: 18 November 2019

Congenital infections may be divided according to the timing of acquisition—intrauterine (first, second, or third trimester), perinatal, or even post-natal—but can be equally devastating at any stage. As the ability of an organism to cross the placenta changes over time, timing may significantly affect fetal outcomes. A good working knowledge of which maternal infections cross the placenta is important, as transmission rates vary according to the organism isolated. Congenital infections may be caused by new or latent infection, and the mother may be asymptomatic; thus a high index of clinical suspicion is needed. Screening in pregnancy is vital, as this is often the only way to diagnose potentially serious infections. In the UK, the following serological pregnancy screening tests are routinely undertaken at booking: rubella, syphilis, HIV, hepatitis B. In other countries, depending on seroprevalence, regional or national programmes of serological screening for cytomegalovirus, hepatitis C, and toxoplasmosis are also undertaken. Antenatal screening may identify women at risk of acquiring infection in pregnancy (e.g. those with no antibodies to rubella, toxoplasma, or cytomegalovirus), transmitting persistent blood-borne infections (e.g. HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C), or transmitting acquired and treatable infections (e.g. syphilis).

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