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Three-dimensional echocardiography 

Three-dimensional echocardiography
Three-dimensional echocardiography

Luigi P. Badano

, Roberto M. Lang

, and Alexandra Goncalves

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date: 27 January 2022

The advent of fully-sampled matrix array transthoracic transducers has enabled advanced digital processing and improved image formation algorithms and brought three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) technology into clinical practice. Currently, 3DE is recognized as an important echocardiographic technique, demonstrated to be superior to two-dimensional echocardiography in various clinical scenarios. This chapter focuses on the technology of 3DE matrix transducers, physics of 3D imaging, data set acquisition (multiplane, real-time, full-volume, zoom, and colour), and display (volume rendering, surface rendering and multislice) modalities. The chapter also addresses the issues of training in 3DE, and main clinical indications and reporting of transthoracic and transoesophageal 3DE.

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