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Cardiac oncology 

Cardiac oncology
Chapter:
Cardiac oncology
Author(s):

Maurizio Galderisi

, Juan Carlos Plana

, Thor Edvardsen

, Vitantonio Di Bello

, and Patrizio Lancellotti

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198726012.003.0064
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date: 29 September 2020

Cancer therapeutics may induce cardiac damage in the left and the right ventricle. Radiotherapy most frequently induces valvular damage, carotid stenosis, and coronary artery disease. Pericardial disease may be due to both chemo- and radiotherapy. The manifestations of both chemo- and radiotherapy can develop acutely but also become overt years after their performance, in particular after radiotherapy. The main cardiac damage of cancer therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD) corresponds to the reduction of left ventricular (LV) systolic function. The Expert Consensus document from ASE and EACVI has defined CTRCD as a decrease in LV ejection fraction (LVEF) of greater than 10 percentage points, to a value less than 53%. The accurate calculation of LVEF at baseline and during follow-up is extremely important. The assessment of LV longitudinal function, in particular of speckle tracking-derived global longitudinal strain (GLS), can provide additional information, allowing early, subclinical detection of CTRCD. The ideal strategy could be to compare the measurements of GLS obtained during chemotherapy, with the one obtained at baseline. An integrated approach with the use of echocardiography at standardized, clinical preselected intervals with biomarker (ultrasensitive troponin) assessment prior to each chemotherapy cycle could be suggested in patients at high risk of CTRCD. Follow-up after therapy should depend on the type of chemotherapy/radiotherapy and the presence/absence of on-therapy CTRCD. Long-term follow-up should be planned after radiotherapy.

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