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Transoesophageal echocardiography 

Transoesophageal echocardiography
Transoesophageal echocardiography

Frank A. Flachskampf

, Mauro Pepi

, and Silvia Gianstefani

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date: 27 January 2022

Transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) is a standard echocardiographic technique which uses the oesophagus and upper stomach as echo windows on the heart and thoracic vessels via an endoscopic probe. It is indicated when transthoracic echocardiography is unable or unlikely to answer the clinical question. Typical indications where TOE has a proven superiority include diagnosis of left atrial thrombi, especially in the appendage, morphological evaluation of atrial septal defect, infective endocarditis, mitral valve disease, aortic and prosthetic valves, aortic diseases, and intraoperative monitoring of cardiac surgery or interventions. Indications, technique, typical views, and information to obtain in specific scenarios are presented.

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