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Replacement heart valves 

Replacement heart valves
Replacement heart valves

John B. Chambers

, Phillipe Pibarot

, and Raphael Rosenhek

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date: 27 January 2022

Echocardiography is the mainstay investigation for assessing replacement valve function and detecting pathology. Transthoracic echocardiography is sufficient for assessing patients routinely with no evidence of pathology. However, in patients with suspected dysfunction, the addition of transoesophageal echocardiography is usually necessary. Stress echocardiography may also be necessary in patients with exertional symptoms unexplained by the resting transthoracic echocardiography. New modalities, notably computed tomography and magnetic resonance, provide complementary information in selected cases. This chapter summarizes the normal appearance of replacement valves by position and also describes the diagnosis of pathology.

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