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Heart valve disease: pulmonary valve disease 

Heart valve disease: pulmonary valve disease
Heart valve disease: pulmonary valve disease

Owen I. Miller

and Werner Budts

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date: 27 January 2022

Congenital abnormalities of the pulmonary valve (PV) are common either as a single lesion or in the context of more complex congenital lesions where abnormalities of the PV play a major role in the cardiac physiology. Transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) imaging of the PV is relatively straightforward in the normally connected heart due to its anterior position close to common sonographic windows. Imaging of the abnormally positioned PV requires modifications to standard projections and may be better demonstrated by a transoesophageal (TOE) or three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic approach. Standard 3D TTE may offer advantages in surgical planning for an abnormally positioned pulmonary valve in complex congenital anatomy and 3D TOE may add value to the demonstration of abnormalities of the subpulmonary right ventricular outflow tract.

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