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Ischaemic heart disease: coronary artery anomalies 

Ischaemic heart disease: coronary artery anomalies
Ischaemic heart disease: coronary artery anomalies

Eugenio Picano

, Fausto Pinto

, and Blazej Michalski

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date: 18 May 2022

Coronary anomalies occur in less than 1% of the general population and their clinical presentation can range anywhere from a benign incidental finding to the cause of sudden cardiac death. Since congenital coronary arteries anomalies are often considered as the first cause of cardiac death in young athletes in Europe, careful attention has to be paid in this specific subpopulation in case of suggestive symptoms. Although focused expert echocardiography is the first-line imaging tool, coronary computed tomography or radiation-free magnetic resonance imaging are recommended for more definitive definition of the coronary course in persons suspected of having coronary artery anomalies. Most coronary anomalies belong to the group of anomalous origin. Aneurysms are defined as dilations of a coronary vessel 1.5 times the normal adjacent coronary artery segment. Coronary artery fistulas are communications between one or more coronary arteries and a cardiac chamber (coronary-cameral), the pulmonary artery, or a venous structure (such as the sinus or superior vena cava).

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