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Heart failure: preserved left ventricular ejection fraction 

Heart failure: preserved left ventricular ejection fraction
Heart failure: preserved left ventricular ejection fraction

Johan De Sutter

, Piotr Lipiec

, and Christine Henri

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date: 18 May 2022

Nearly half of all patients with heart failure present with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFPEF). HFPEF is a pathophysiologically and clinically heterogeneous disease with an overall similar outcome to heart failure patients with a reduced ejection fraction. It is predominantly seen in elderly patients and comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, a sedentary lifestyle, and myocardial ischaemia play important roles in its development. In this chapter the conventional echocardiographic hallmarks of HFPEF including a preserved ejection fraction, left ventricular hypertrophy, left atrial dilatation, diastolic dysfunction, and pulmonary hypertension are presented. For the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, it is important to keep in mind that no single echocardiographic parameter is sufficiently accurate and reproducible to be used in isolation to make a diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction. The value of newer techniques including three-dimensional echocardiography and longitudinal strain assessment for the diagnosis and follow-up of HFPEF patients are promising but require further evaluation. As exercise-induced dyspnoea may be the first manifestation of HFPEF, the role of exercise echo (or diastolic stress testing) with evaluation of exercise-induced changes in left ventricular filling pressure and pulmonary artery systolic pressure is also presented. This chapter ends with a discussion on the echocardiographic parameters that can be used for risk stratification and follow-up of HFPEF patients.

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