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Heart failure: risk stratification and follow-up 

Heart failure: risk stratification and follow-up
Heart failure: risk stratification and follow-up

Marie Moonen

, Nico Van de Veire

, and Erwan Donal

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date: 27 January 2022

An increasing number of two- and three-dimensional echocardiographic, Doppler, and speckle imaging-derived parameters and values can be related to prognosis in heart failure with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. This chapter discusses both conventional and new indices, including their advantages and potential limitations. There is increasing evidence for the use of new indices, including three-dimensional LV ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain. The follow-up and monitoring of heart failure patients using two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography is also discussed in this chapter, including how to estimate the LV filling pressures and quantify LV reverse remodelling.

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