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Left ventricle: diastolic function 

Left ventricle: diastolic function
Chapter:
Left ventricle: diastolic function
Author(s):

Otto A. Smiseth

, Maurizio Galderisi

, and Jae K. Oh

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198726012.003.0021
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date: 17 July 2019

Evaluation of diastolic function by echocardiography is useful to diagnose heart failure with preserved ejection fraction by showing signs of diastolic dysfunction, and regardless of ejection fraction, echocardiography can be used to estimate left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. Diastolic dysfunction occurs in a number of cardiac diseases other than heart failure and mild diastolic dysfunction is part of the normal ageing process. The fundamental disturbances in diastolic dysfunction are slowing of myocardial relaxation, loss of restoring forces, and reduced LV chamber compliance. As a compensatory response there is elevated LV filling pressure. Slowing of relaxation and loss of restoring forces are reflected in reduction in LV early diastolic lengthening velocity (e?) by tissue Doppler. The reduced diastolic compliance is reflected in faster deceleration of early diastolic transmitral velocity by pulsed wave Doppler. Elevated LV filling pressure is reflected in a number of Doppler indices and in enlarged left atrium. This chapter reviews the physiology of diastolic function, the clinical methods and indices which are available, and how these should be applied.

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