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Transthoracic echocardiography/two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography 

Transthoracic echocardiography/two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography
Transthoracic echocardiography/two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography

Miguel Ángel García Fernández

and José Juan Gómez de Diego

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date: 27 January 2022

The echocardiogram is an extremely useful technique that gives all relevant information on morphology and function of the heart in a wide range of clinical situations. The very first step in echo is how to achieve the images needed for the cardiac evaluation. This chapter covers the basics of echo imaging acquisition including patient positioning and the pivotal concepts of echocardiographic window and view. The two-dimensional echo planes are carefully explained with a detailed description of the cardiac structures that can be studied in every view. The clinical scenarios where a specific imaging mode or orientation could be especially useful are also detailed. Finally M-mode imaging is covered, including detailed explanations of the habitual findings in normal studies.

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