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General principles of echocardiography 

General principles of echocardiography
General principles of echocardiography

Madalina Garbi

, Jan D’hooge

, and Evgeny Shkolnik

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date: 18 May 2022

Echocardiography uses ultrasound waves to generate images of cardiovascular structures and to display information regarding the blood flow through these structures. Knowledge of basic ultrasound principles and current technology is essential for image interpretation and for optimal use of equipment during image acquisition and post-processing. This chapter starts by presenting the physics of ultrasound and the construction and function of instruments. Image formation, optimization, display, presentation, storage, and communication are explained. Advantages and disadvantages of available imaging modes (M-mode, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional) are detailed and imaging artefacts are illustrated. The potential biologic effects of ultrasound and the need for quality assurance are discussed.

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