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ADHD pathogenesis 

ADHD pathogenesis
Chapter:
ADHD pathogenesis
Author(s):

Edmund Sonuga-Barke

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198724308.003.0003
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date: 18 November 2019

ADHD has a complex etiology. Multiple genetic common and rare variants and early operating environmental risk factors of small effect act and interact to create a spectrum of neurobiological liability. Brain structure and function is disrupted in subtle ways across multiple systems that regulate both intrinsic spontaneous and extrinsic task-elicited cognition and action. ADHD performance can be normalized in certain contexts, highlighting the importance of motivational and energetic processes. ADHD is not a single pathophysiological entity, with growing evidence for different subgroups of individual patients with different pathogenic and cognitive deficit profiles.

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