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Manganese in pregnancy and breastfeeding 

Manganese in pregnancy and breastfeeding
Manganese in pregnancy and breastfeeding

Sir Peter Gluckman

, Mark Hanson

, Chong Yap Seng

, and Anne Bardsley

Page of

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date: 17 September 2021

Manganese is both an essential element and a potent neurotoxin. It is involved in cellular metabolic processes and is a component of antioxidant enzymes. Uptake and efflux of manganese is tightly regulated, as both deficiency and excess can result in disease states. Manganese has essential functions in maternal health and fetal development, and in healthy women adequate amounts can be obtained from a mixed diet of grains, cereals, and fruits. Supplements containing manganese should be used with caution, as excess intake can have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. Maternal intake in pregnancy and lactation is not likely to be a worry in most cases, as transfer of manganese to the fetus and into breast milk is limited.

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