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Iodine in pregnancy and breastfeeding 

Iodine in pregnancy and breastfeeding
Chapter:
Iodine in pregnancy and breastfeeding
Author(s):

Sir Peter Gluckman

, Mark Hanson

, Chong Yap Seng

, and Anne Bardsley

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198722700.003.0019
Page of

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date: 22 October 2019

Iodine is a key component of thyroid hormones. Development of the fetal brain and nervous system are dependent on thyroid hormones supplied by the mother via the placenta, increasing the maternal demand for iodine throughout pregnancy. Women with adequate iodine intake before conception (~150 #amp;#x03BC;g/day) can adapt to the increased demand for thyroid hormones during pregnancy, because the thyroid gland adjusts its hormonal output; but this depends on sufficient availability of dietary iodine and the integrity of the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency causes congenital hypothyroidism, and in severe form, the irreversible brain damage associated with cretinism. Moderate iodine deficiency in pregnancy is associated with lower learning capacity, reduced IQ, hearing impairment, and increased risk of attention deficit disorder. Pregnant women should take a daily multivitamin that contains 150 #amp;#x00B5;g of iodine, unless they regularly consume concentrated food sources of iodine.

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