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Berenice C. Langdon

and Aodhán S. Breathnach

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date: 20 January 2022

This chapter includes seven presentations of genital urinary medicine including pelvic inflammatory disease (seen in females), urethral discharge (usually seen in males), HIV, vaginal thrush, bacterial vaginosis, cervical screening, and genital herpes. The cases are each set in different settings which reflects the range of presentations seen in each specialty; either in general practice, a genital urinary medicine clinic or in hospital. Each case discusses the key microbe, respectively chlamydia, gonorrhoea, HIV, Candida albicans, HPV, and HSV, and its presentation, samples taken, laboratory processes and treatment as well as congenital infection where relevant. In particular nucleic acid amplification technology for interpreting swab results and the evolution of HIV testing is discussed in detail.

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