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Berenice C. Langdon

and Aodhán S. Breathnach

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date: 21 May 2022

This chapter includes three presentations of urinary tract infections: recurrent UTI, pyelonephritis and schistosomiasis. Each case has a discussion of the presentation, the relevant sample taking (usually a clean catch urine or midstream urine), the key microbes involved, and laboratory techniques relevant to each. In particular the microbe Proteus mirabalis and the Dienes phenomenon it displays are discussed, the pathology behind renal stones, the usefulness of the ubiquitous urine dip, and in the laboratory the commonly used CLED agar used for urine samples and the relevant sensitivities. In pyleonephritis there is a detailed discussion of E. coli and Gram stains and in the schistosomiasis case, S. haematobium and its life cycle and epidemiology are described in detail.

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