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date: 23 October 2019

Chapter 9: Anaesthesia

1 Mulak V et al. Perioperative medication management. UpToDate; 2015

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4 NICE. Preoperative tests for elective surgery (CG 3). NICE; 2003

5 AAGBI. Pre-operative assessment and patient preparation The role of the anaesthetist. London: AAGBI; 2010

6 Poldermans et al. Guidelines for pre-operative cardiac risk assessment and perioperative cardiac management in non-cardiac surgery. European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and endorsed by the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA). Eur J Anaesthesiol 2010; 27(2):92–137. PubMed ID: 20068416 this resource:

7 Bergs J et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of the World Health Organization surgical safety checklist on postoperative complications. Br J Surg 2014; 101(3):150–8. PubMed ID: 24469615 this resource:

8 Messeri A et al. Anaesthesia induction in children: a psychological evaluation of the efficiency of parents’ presence. Paediatr Anaesth 2004; 14(7):551–6. PubMed ID: 15200651 this resource:

9 Bringman H et al. Relaxing music as pre-medication before surgery: a randomised controlled trial. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2009; 53(6):759–64. PubMed ID: 19388893 this resource:

10 Steeds C et al. Premedication. Anaesth Intens Care Med 2006; 7:393–6 this resource:

11 Bromley L. Pre-emptive analgesia and protective premedication. What is the difference? Biomed Pharmacother 2006; 60(7):336–40 this resource:

12 Kong VKF et al. Gabapentin: a multimodal perioperative drug? Br J Anaesth 2007; 99(6):775–86 this resource:

13 British Association of Day Surgery website

14 Livhits M et al. Risk of surgery following recent myocardial infarction. Ann Surg 2011; 253(5):857–64 this resource:

15 Practice guidelines for sedation and analgesia by non-anesthesiologists. Anesthesiology 2002; 96:1004–17 this resource:

16 La Colla I et al. Faster wash-out and recovery for desflurane vs sevoflurane in morbidly obese patients when no premedication is used. Br J Anaesth 2007; 99(3):353–8 PubMed ID: 17621601 this resource:

17 Joo HS et al. Sevoflurane versus propofol for anesthetic induction: a meta-analysis. Anesth Analg 2000; 91(1):213–19. PubMed ID: 10866915 this resource:

18 Bradley AED et al. Use of propofol in patients with food allergies. Anaesthesia 2008; 63:439 this resource:

19 Wilder-Smith OH et al. Midazolam premedication reduces propofol dose requirements for multiple anesthetic endpoints. Can J Anaesth 2001; 48(5):439–45. PubMed ID: 11394510 this resource:

20 Cressey DM et al. Effect of midazolam pretreatment on induction dose requirements of propofol in combination with fentanyl in younger and older adults. Anaesthesia 2001; 56(2):108–13. PubMed ID : 11167469 this resource:

21 Picard P et al. Prevention of pain on injection with propofol: a quantitative systematic review. Anesth Analg 2000; 90(4):963–9. PubMed ID: 10735808 this resource:

22 Eger EI. Characteristics of anesthetic agents used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2004; 61(Suppl 4):S3–10. PubMed ID: 15532143 this resource:

23 Pinnock C et al. Fundamentals of Anaesthesia. London: Greenwich Medical Media Ltd; 2002, 641Find this resource:

24 Holley AD et al. Management of acute severe and near-fatal asthma. Emerg Med Australas 2009; 21(4):259–68. PubMed ID: 19682010 this resource:

25 Eger EI. Characteristics of anesthetic agents used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2004; 61(Suppl 4):S3–10. PubMed ID: 15532143 this resource:

26 AAGBI. Recommendations for standards of monitoring during anaesthesia and recovery, 4th ed. London: AAGBI; 2007 this resource:

27 Figueredo E et al. Assessment of the efficacy of esmolol on the haemodynamic changes induced by laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation: a meta-analysis. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2001; 45(8):1011–22. PubMed ID: 11576054 this resource:

28 Gupta A et al. Total intravenous anesthesia(TIVA). In Vacanti C et al. (eds) Essential clinical anesthesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2011, 305–8 this resource:

29 Liu SS. Effects of Bispectral Index monitoring on ambulatory anesthesia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and a cost analysis. Anesthesiology 2004; 101(2):311–15. PubMed ID: 15277912 this resource:

30 Kreuer S et al. Comparison of Alaris AEP index and bispectral index during propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 2003; 91(3):336–40. PubMed ID: 12925470 this resource:

31 Prediction of difficult tracheal intubation. Iohom G, Ronayne M, Cunningham AJ. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2003; 20(1):31–6. PubMed ID: 12553386 this resource:

32 Oxford Handbook of AnaesthesiaFind this resource:

33 Difficult Airway Society. DAS Intubation Guidelines 2004. Difficult Airway Society; 2004

34 National Audit Project. NAP5 report

35 AAGBI. Malignant hyperthermia crisis. AAGBI safety guideline. AAGBI; 2011

36 Gaudio RM et al. Traumatic dental injuries during anaesthesia. Part II: medico-legal evaluation and liability. Dent Traumatol 2011; 27(1):40–5 this resource:

37 Dabas R et al. Fresh frozen plasma for succinylcholine apnoea – time to reconsider? Anaesthesia 2003; 58:815–16 this resource:

38 Kranke P, et al. Pharmacological treatment of postoperative shivering: A quantitative systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Anesth Analg 2002; 94:453–60. Pub Med ID : 15333401 this resource:

39 Perry J et al. Rocuronium versus succinylcholine for rapid sequence induction intubation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; 1:CD002788. PubMed ID: 12535439 this resource:

40 Smith MD et al. Preoperative carbohydrate treatment for enhancing recovery after elective surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014; 8:CD009161 this resource:

41 Nicholson A et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of enhanced recovery programmes in surgical patients. Br J Surg 2014; 101(3):172–88 this resource:

42 Hadjistavropoulos HD et al. Information provision, patient involvement, and emotional support: prospective areas for improving anesthetic care. Can J Anaesth 2001; 48(9):864–70. PubMed ID: 11606342 this resource:

43 Johns C et al. Improving the peri-operative experience: a multidisciplinary team approach. Int J Health Care Qual Assur 1995; 8(5):4–7. PubMed ID: 10144390 this resource:

44 Macario A et al. Which clinical anesthesia outcomes are important to avoid? The perspective of patients. Anesth Analg 1999; 89(3):652. PubMed ID: 10475299 this resource:

45 Albaladejo P et al. Impact of an information booklet on patient satisfaction in anesthesia.] Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 2000; 19(4):242. PubMed ID: 10836108 this resource:

46 Page L et al. Clinical interventions and outcomes of one-to-one midwifery practice. J Public Health Med 1999; 21(3):243. PubMed ID: 10528949 this resource:

47 McDonald JS et al. Operating room event analysis. Med Instrum 1983; 17(2):107. PubMed ID: this resource:

48 Irita K et al. Lack of communication between anesthesiologists and surgeons: comparison of questionnaire survey among anesthesiologists with that among surgeons concerning pre- anesthetic evaluation of surgical patients. Masui 2000; 49(1):7–17. PubMed ID: 10689836 this resource:


50 Smith HS et al. Postoperative nausea and vomiting. Ann Palliat Med 1(2). this resource:

51 Miller B. Postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesth Intens Care Med 2006; 7:453–5 this resource:

52 Gan TJ et al. A randomized, double-blind comparison of the NK1 antagonist, aprepitant, versus ondansetron for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg 2007; 104(5):1082–9. PubMed ID: 17456656Find this resource:

53 Diemunsch P et al. Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Br J Anaesth 2009; 103(1):7–13 this resource:

54 Lee A et al. Stimulation of the wrist acupuncture point P6 for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; 2:CD003281. PubMed ID: 19370583Find this resource:

55 Gelfand HJ et al. Analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia: a meta-analysis. J Clin Anesth 2011; 23(2):90–6 this resource:

56 AAGBI. AAGBI safety guideline. Management of severe local anaesthetic toxicity. AAGBI; 2010

57 Oxford Book p1155Find this resource:

58 Rigg J. Epidural anaesthesia and analgesia and outcome of major surgery: a randomised trial. Lancet 2002; 359(9314):1276–82. PubMed ID: 11965272 this resource:

59 Boonmak P et al. Epidural blood patching for preventing and treating post-dural puncture headache. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; 1:CD001791 this resource:

60 Reihsaus E. Spinal epidural abscess: a meta-analysis of 915 patients. Neurosurg Rev 2000; 23(4):175–204. PubMed ID: 11153548 this resource:

61 Wong CA et al. The risk of cesarean delivery with neuraxial analgesia given early versus late in labor. N Engl J Med 2005; 352(7):655–65. PubMed ID: 15716559 this resource:

62 Afolabi BB et al. Regional versus general anaesthesia for caesarean section. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 4:CD004350. PubMed ID: 17054201 this resource:

63 Jorgensen H. Epidural local anaesthetics versus opioid-based analgesic regimens on postoperative gastrointestinal paralysis, PONV and pain after abdominal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; 4:CD001893 this resource:

64 Bettelli G. Which muscle relaxants should be used in day surgery and when. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2006; 19(6):600–5. PubMed ID: 17093362 this resource:

65 Urwin SC et al. General versus regional anaesthesia for hip fracture surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Br J Anaesth 2000; 84(4):450–5. PubMed ID: 10823094 this resource:

66 Liu SS et al. Effects of perioperative central neuraxial analgesia on outcome after coronary artery bypass surgery: a meta-analysis. Anesthesiology 2004; 101(1):153–61. PubMed ID: 15220785 this resource:

67 Lee A. Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on post-operative renal function in normal adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; 2:CD002765. PubMed ID: 17054201 this resource:

68 Recommended guidelines for Pain Management Programmes for adults: A consensus statement prepared on behalf of the British Pain Society. (April 2007)Find this resource:

69 Kootstra G et al. Categories of non-heart-beating donors. Transplant Proc 1995; 27(5):2893–4. PubMed ID: 7482956 this resource:

70 Robinson LR et al. Predictive value of somatosensory evoked potentials for awakening from coma. Crit Care Med 2003; 31(3):960–7. PubMed ID: 12627012 this resource:

71 Keown D. End of life: the Buddhist view. Lancet 2005; 366(9489):952 this resource: