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Primary care 

Primary care
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date: 23 October 2019

Chapter 6: Primary care

1 Royal College of General Practitioners. The future direction of general practice, a roadmap. London: RCGP; 2007 this resource:

2 Reeve J. Protecting generalism - moving on from evidence-based medicine? Br J Gen Pract 2010; 60:521 this resource:

3 Adapted from The King’s Fund. General practice in England: an overview. The King’s Fund, 2009

4 GP capitation fee = £72/5.5 = £13. A&E figure from Department of Health. Reference costs 2011–12.

5 WHO/UNICEF. Alma-Ata 1978: Primary health care. Geneva: WHO/UNICEF; 1978

6 OpenLearnWorks. Health Management, Ethics and Research Module: Principles of primary health care.

7 Davis K et al. The Commonwealth Fund report 2014. Mirror Mirror on the wall. How the performance of the US healthcare system performs internationally. The Commonwealth Fund; 2014

8 Starfield (1994) quoted in Taylor RJ et al. General practice medicine: an illustrated colour text. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2003Find this resource:

9 Zimmerman GL et al. A ‘stages of change’ approach to helping patients change behavior. Am Fam Physician 2000; 61(5):1409–16 this resource:

10 Storr E. Motivational interviewing: a positive approach. InnovAiT 2011; 4(9):533–8. doi:10.1093/innovait/inr045 this resource:

11 Stewart MA et al. Patient-centred medicine: transforming the clinical method, 2nd ed. Oxford: Radcliffe Medical Press; 2003 this resource:

12 Wilson A et al. The effect of interventions to alter the consultation length of family physicians: a systematic review. Br J Gen Pract 2006; 56(532):876–82. PubMed ID: 17132356 this resource:

13 Balint M. The doctor, his patient and the illness. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1957Find this resource:

14 Byrne PS et al. Doctors talking to patients. London: RCGP; 1976Find this resource:

15 Stott NCH et al. The exceptional potential in each primary care consultation. JRCGP 1979; 29:201–5 this resource:

16 Pendleton D et al. The consultation: an approach to learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1984Find this resource:

17 Neighbour R. The inner consultation. Newbury: Petroc Press. 1987.Find this resource:

18 Kurtz S et al. Teaching and learning communication skills in medicine, 2nd ed. Oxford: Radcliffe Medical Press; 2004.Find this resource:

19 Sullivan FM et al. Evidence in consultations: interpreted and individualised. Lancet 1996; 348(9032):941–3. PubMed ID: 8843817 this resource:

20 Klein JG. Five pitfalls in decisions about diagnosis and prescribing. BMJ 2005; 330:781–4 this resource:

21 Munasque a. ‘Thinking about thinking:’ heuristics and the emergency physician. Emerg Med News 2009; 31

22 Crosskery P. The importance of cognitive errors in diagnosis and strategies to minimize them. Acad Med 2003; 78(8):775–80. PubMed ID: 12915363 this resource:

23 Cox K. What doctors need to know. A note on professional performance. Med J Aust PubMed ID: 1454004 1992; 157(11–12):764–8. this resource:

24 Greenhalgh T. “Is my practice evidence-based?” BMJ 1996; 313:957. PubMed ID: 8892405 this resource:

25 Freeman G et al. Continuity of care and the patient experience. The King’s Fund; 2010.

26 North Staffordshire Local Medical Committee. General practitioner visiting guidelines. North Staffordshire Local Medical Committee, June 2008

27 Campbell JL et al. Telephone triage for management of same-day consultation requests in general practice (the ESTEEM trial): a cluster-randomised controlled trial and cost-consequence analysis. Lancet 2014; 384(9957):1859–68. PubMed ID: 25098487 this resource:

28 DVLA. At a glance guide to the current medical standards of fitness to drive for medical practitioners. DVLA; May 2014.

29 Civil Aviation Authority. Assessing fitness to fly. Guidelines for health professionals from the Aviation Health Unit. UK Civil Aviation Authority; May 2012

30 MDU. Medico-legal guide to Coroner’s Inquiries. The MDU, 2013

31 General Medical Council. End of life care: When to consider making a Do Not Attempt CPR (DNACPR) decision. GMC, 2013

32 NHS Scotland. Do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation: integrated adult policy. NHS Scotland; 2010

33 Huber M. Health: how should we define it? BMJ 2011; 343:235 this resource:

34 Pell JP et al. Effect of socioeconomic deprivation on waiting time for cardiac surgery: retrospective cohort study. BMJ 2000; 320:15–18 and Tudor Hart J. Three decades of the inverse care law. Commentary. BMJ 2000; 320:18–19 this resource:

35 The Black Report. Inequalities in health: report of a Research Working Party. London: DHSS, 1980Find this resource:

36 The Kings Fund. Transforming our health care system: ten priorities for commissioners. The Kings Fund, 2011

37 Fletcher AE et al. Population-based multidimensional assessment of older people in UK general practice: a cluster-randomised factorial trial. Lancet 2004; 364(9446):1667–77. PubMed ID: 15530627 this resource:

38 British Heart Foundation. Do more exercise? I’d rather die! BHF, September, 2007. (‘Only 38% of Brits would be motivated to do more exercise if their life depended on it, a survey for the British Heart Foundation reveals today’.)

39 Luo W et al. [Comparison between the effectiveness of two oral health education program for middle-school students.] Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2007; 25(3):266–8. PubMed ID: 17629203 this resource:

40 Jorgensen T et al. Effect of screening and lifestyle counselling on incidence of ischaemic heart disease in general population: Inter99 randomised trial. BMJ 2014; 348:3617. PubMed ID: 24912589 this resource:

41 NICE. Smoking prevention and cessation overview. NICE

42 Raw M et al. Smoking cessation: evidence based recommendations for the healthcare system. BMJ 1999; 318(7177):182–5. PubMed ID: 9888919 this resource:

43 Whittaker R, et al. Mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 11:CD006611. PubMed ID: 23152238 this resource:

44 Gilmore I et al. Reducing the harms of alcohol in the UK. BMJ 2007; 335(7633):1271–2. PubMed ID: 18156221 this resource:

45 Anderson P. Effectiveness of general practice interventions for patients with harmful alcohol consumption. Br J Gen Pract 1993; 43(374):386–9. PubMed ID: 8251237 this resource:

46 Green J et al. Treatment of menopausal symptoms by qualified herbal practitioners: a prospective, randomized controlled trial. Greenwood R. Fam Pract 2007; 24(5):468–74.PubMed ID: 17698978 this resource:

47 Beck V et al. Comparison of hormonal activity (estrogen, androgen and progestin) of standardized plant extracts for large scale use in hormone replacement therapy. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2003; 84(2–3):259–68.PubMed ID: 12711012 this resource:

48 Sundberg T et al. Towards a model for integrative medicine in Swedish primary care. BMC Health Serv Res PubMed ID: 2007; 7:107 17623105 this resource:

49 Fugelli P. The general practitioner and the spirits of time. In Lakhani M (ed). A celebration of general practice. Abingdon: Radcliffe Medical Press; 2003, 173–86Find this resource:

50 Campbell NC et al. Treating hypertension with guidelines in general practise. BMJ 2004; 329(7465):523–4 this resource:

51 Heneghan C et al. Hypertension guideline recommendations in general practice: awareness, agreement, adoption, and adherence. Br J Gen Pract 2007; 57(545):948–52. Comment in: Br J Gen Pract 2007; 57(545):939-–40, & Br J Gen Pract 2008; 58(549):277. this resource:

52 Eccles MP et al. Is untargeted educational outreach visiting delivered by pharmaceutical advisers effective in primary care? A pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Implement Sci 2007; 2(1):23. PubMed ID: 17655748 this resource:

53 Department of Health. Chief medical officer (CMO). DH, 2012

54 West Sussex NHS. Coding and Summarising protocol 2009. West Sussex NHS, 2009

55 Patient. Clinical negligence and the electronic patient record. Patient, 2015

56 Arie S. Derbyshire village wins court battle. BMJ 2006; 333(7566):461. PubMed ID: 16946323 this resource:

57 Reductio Ad Absurdum. In Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy this resource:

58 Griffiths C et al. How effective are expert patient (lay led) education programmes for chronic disease? BMJ 2007; 334(7606):1254–6. PubMed ID: 17569933 this resource: