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Primary care 

Primary care
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date: 23 October 2019

Chapter 6: Primary care

1 Royal College of General Practitioners. The future direction of general practice, a roadmap. London: RCGP; 2007 http://www.rcgp.org.uk/policy/rcgp-policy-areas/future-direction-of-general-practice-a-roadmap.aspxFind this resource:

2 Reeve J. Protecting generalism - moving on from evidence-based medicine? Br J Gen Pract 2010; 60:521 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20594443Find this resource:

3 Adapted from The King’s Fund. General practice in England: an overview. The King’s Fund, 2009 http://www.kingsfund.org.uk/sites/files/kf/general-practice-in-england-overview-sarah-gregory-kings-fund-september-2009.pdf

4 GP capitation fee = £72/5.5 = £13. A&E figure from Department of Health. Reference costs 2011–12. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/213060/2011-12-reference-costs-publication.pdf

5 WHO/UNICEF. Alma-Ata 1978: Primary health care. Geneva: WHO/UNICEF; 1978 http://www.unicef.org/about/history/files/Alma_Ata_conference_1978_report.pdf

6 OpenLearnWorks. Health Management, Ethics and Research Module: Principles of primary health care. http://labspace.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=454398&section=1.5.1

7 Davis K et al. The Commonwealth Fund report 2014. Mirror Mirror on the wall. How the performance of the US healthcare system performs internationally. The Commonwealth Fund; 2014 http://www.commonwealthfund.org/~/media/files/publications/fund-report/2014/jun/1755_davis_mirror_mirror_2014.pdf

8 Starfield (1994) quoted in Taylor RJ et al. General practice medicine: an illustrated colour text. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2003Find this resource:

9 Zimmerman GL et al. A ‘stages of change’ approach to helping patients change behavior. Am Fam Physician 2000; 61(5):1409–16 http://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0301/p1409.htmlFind this resource:

10 Storr E. Motivational interviewing: a positive approach. InnovAiT 2011; 4(9):533–8. doi:10.1093/innovait/inr045 http://www.bradfordvts.co.uk/wp-content/onlineresources/0200consultation/changingbehaviour/motivational%20interviewing%20by%20emma%20storr.pdfFind this resource:

11 Stewart MA et al. Patient-centred medicine: transforming the clinical method, 2nd ed. Oxford: Radcliffe Medical Press; 2003 http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=qnfytcp9neUC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=falseFind this resource:

12 Wilson A et al. The effect of interventions to alter the consultation length of family physicians: a systematic review. Br J Gen Pract 2006; 56(532):876–82. PubMed ID: 17132356 http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17132356&from=cqsrFind this resource:

13 Balint M. The doctor, his patient and the illness. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1957Find this resource:

14 Byrne PS et al. Doctors talking to patients. London: RCGP; 1976Find this resource:

15 Stott NCH et al. The exceptional potential in each primary care consultation. JRCGP 1979; 29:201–5 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2159027/pdf/jroyalcgprac00124-0011.pdfFind this resource:

16 Pendleton D et al. The consultation: an approach to learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1984Find this resource:

17 Neighbour R. The inner consultation. Newbury: Petroc Press. 1987.Find this resource:

18 Kurtz S et al. Teaching and learning communication skills in medicine, 2nd ed. Oxford: Radcliffe Medical Press; 2004.Find this resource:

19 Sullivan FM et al. Evidence in consultations: interpreted and individualised. Lancet 1996; 348(9032):941–3. PubMed ID: 8843817 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8843817/Find this resource:

20 Klein JG. Five pitfalls in decisions about diagnosis and prescribing. BMJ 2005; 330:781–4 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC555888/Find this resource:

21 Munasque a. ‘Thinking about thinking:’ heuristics and the emergency physician. Emerg Med News 2009; 31 http://journals.lww.com/em-news/Fulltext/2009/10081/_Thinking_about_Thinking___Heuristics_and_the.4.aspx

22 Crosskery P. The importance of cognitive errors in diagnosis and strategies to minimize them. Acad Med 2003; 78(8):775–80. PubMed ID: 12915363 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12915363Find this resource:

23 Cox K. What doctors need to know. A note on professional performance. Med J Aust PubMed ID: 1454004 1992; 157(11–12):764–8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/entrez/queryd.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=1454004Find this resource:

24 Greenhalgh T. “Is my practice evidence-based?” BMJ 1996; 313:957. PubMed ID: 8892405 http://www.bmj.com/content/313/7063/957?sso=Find this resource:

25 Freeman G et al. Continuity of care and the patient experience. The King’s Fund; 2010. http://www.kingsfund.org.uk/sites/files/kf/field/field_document/continuity-care-patient-experience-gp-inquiry-research-paper-mar11.pdf

26 North Staffordshire Local Medical Committee. General practitioner visiting guidelines. North Staffordshire Local Medical Committee, June 2008 http://www.northstaffslmc.co.uk/archive/Documents/VISGUIDE%20revised.pdf

27 Campbell JL et al. Telephone triage for management of same-day consultation requests in general practice (the ESTEEM trial): a cluster-randomised controlled trial and cost-consequence analysis. Lancet 2014; 384(9957):1859–68. PubMed ID: 25098487 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=25098487Find this resource:

28 DVLA. At a glance guide to the current medical standards of fitness to drive for medical practitioners. DVLA; May 2014. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/351444/aagv1.pdf

29 Civil Aviation Authority. Assessing fitness to fly. Guidelines for health professionals from the Aviation Health Unit. UK Civil Aviation Authority; May 2012 http://www.caa.co.uk/docs/2497/Fitness%20To%20Fly%20-%20May%202012.pdf

30 MDU. Medico-legal guide to Coroner’s Inquiries. The MDU, 2013 http://www.themdu.com/guidance-and-advice/guides/coroners-inquiries/introduction

31 General Medical Council. End of life care: When to consider making a Do Not Attempt CPR (DNACPR) decision. GMC, 2013 http://www.gmc-uk.org/guidance/ethical_guidance/end_of_life_DNACPR_decision.asp

32 NHS Scotland. Do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation: integrated adult policy. NHS Scotland; 2010 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/resource/doc/312784/0098903.pdf

33 Huber M. Health: how should we define it? BMJ 2011; 343:235 http://www.bmj.com/content/343/bmj.d4163Find this resource:

34 Pell JP et al. Effect of socioeconomic deprivation on waiting time for cardiac surgery: retrospective cohort study. BMJ 2000; 320:15–18 and Tudor Hart J. Three decades of the inverse care law. Commentary. BMJ 2000; 320:18–19 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC27247/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10671038Find this resource:

35 The Black Report. Inequalities in health: report of a Research Working Party. London: DHSS, 1980Find this resource:

36 The Kings Fund. Transforming our health care system: ten priorities for commissioners. The Kings Fund, 2011 http://www.kingsfund.org.uk/projects/gp-commissioning/ten-priorities-for-commissioners

37 Fletcher AE et al. Population-based multidimensional assessment of older people in UK general practice: a cluster-randomised factorial trial. Lancet 2004; 364(9446):1667–77. PubMed ID: 15530627 http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=15530627&from=cqsrFind this resource:

38 British Heart Foundation. Do more exercise? I’d rather die! BHF, September, 2007. (‘Only 38% of Brits would be motivated to do more exercise if their life depended on it, a survey for the British Heart Foundation reveals today’.) http://www.gponline.com/exercise-id-rather-die/article/932952

39 Luo W et al. [Comparison between the effectiveness of two oral health education program for middle-school students.] Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2007; 25(3):266–8. PubMed ID: 17629203 http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17629203&from=cqsrFind this resource:

40 Jorgensen T et al. Effect of screening and lifestyle counselling on incidence of ischaemic heart disease in general population: Inter99 randomised trial. BMJ 2014; 348:3617. PubMed ID: 24912589 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=24912589Find this resource:

41 NICE. Smoking prevention and cessation overview. NICE http://pathways.nice.org.uk/pathways/smoking

42 Raw M et al. Smoking cessation: evidence based recommendations for the healthcare system. BMJ 1999; 318(7177):182–5. PubMed ID: 9888919 http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/318/7177/182Find this resource:

43 Whittaker R, et al. Mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 11:CD006611. PubMed ID: 23152238 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23152238/?i=6&from=tobacco%20text%20messaagingFind this resource:

44 Gilmore I et al. Reducing the harms of alcohol in the UK. BMJ 2007; 335(7633):1271–2. PubMed ID: 18156221 http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/335/7633/1271Find this resource:

45 Anderson P. Effectiveness of general practice interventions for patients with harmful alcohol consumption. Br J Gen Pract 1993; 43(374):386–9. PubMed ID: 8251237 http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=8251237&from=cqsrFind this resource:

46 Green J et al. Treatment of menopausal symptoms by qualified herbal practitioners: a prospective, randomized controlled trial. Greenwood R. Fam Pract 2007; 24(5):468–74.PubMed ID: 17698978 http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17698978&from=cqsrFind this resource:

47 Beck V et al. Comparison of hormonal activity (estrogen, androgen and progestin) of standardized plant extracts for large scale use in hormone replacement therapy. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2003; 84(2–3):259–68.PubMed ID: 12711012 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12711012Find this resource:

48 Sundberg T et al. Towards a model for integrative medicine in Swedish primary care. BMC Health Serv Res PubMed ID: 2007; 7:107 17623105 http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17623105&from=cqsrFind this resource:

49 Fugelli P. The general practitioner and the spirits of time. In Lakhani M (ed). A celebration of general practice. Abingdon: Radcliffe Medical Press; 2003, 173–86Find this resource:

50 Campbell NC et al. Treating hypertension with guidelines in general practise. BMJ 2004; 329(7465):523–4 http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/329/7465/523?ehomFind this resource:

51 Heneghan C et al. Hypertension guideline recommendations in general practice: awareness, agreement, adoption, and adherence. Br J Gen Pract 2007; 57(545):948–52. Comment in: Br J Gen Pract 2007; 57(545):939-–40, & Br J Gen Pract 2008; 58(549):277. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18252069/Find this resource:

52 Eccles MP et al. Is untargeted educational outreach visiting delivered by pharmaceutical advisers effective in primary care? A pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Implement Sci 2007; 2(1):23. PubMed ID: 17655748 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1994680/Find this resource:

53 Department of Health. Chief medical officer (CMO). DH, 2012 http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130107105354/http://dh.gov.uk/health/category/cpo/chief-medical-officer/

54 West Sussex NHS. Coding and Summarising protocol 2009. West Sussex NHS, 2009 http://westsussex.nhs.uk/domains/westsussex.nhs.uk/local/media//publications/Health-professionals/QOF/Coding_and_summarising_protocol.pdf

55 Patient. Clinical negligence and the electronic patient record. Patient, 2015 http://www.patient.co.uk/doctor/clinical-negligence-and-the-electronic-patient-record

56 Arie S. Derbyshire village wins court battle. BMJ 2006; 333(7566):461. PubMed ID: 16946323 http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/333/7566/461-aFind this resource:

57 Reductio Ad Absurdum. In Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy http://www.iep.utm.edu/r/reductio.htmFind this resource:

58 Griffiths C et al. How effective are expert patient (lay led) education programmes for chronic disease? BMJ 2007; 334(7606):1254–6. PubMed ID: 17569933 http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/334/7606/1254Find this resource: