Show Summary Details
Page of

Ophthalmology 

Ophthalmology
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE (www.oxfordmedicine.com). © Oxford University Press, 2016. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 23 October 2019

Chapter 5: Ophthalmology

1 Ludwig Wittgenstein, Zettle, Blackwell, p222; no link availableFind this resource:

2 MNT. Scientists identify brain regions that decide where we look. MNT, 2005 http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/19428.php

3 Talley NJ et al. Clinical examination: a systematic guide to physical diagnosis, 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013Find this resource:

4 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3223543/

5 McIntyre D. Colour blindness. Chester: Dalton Publishing; 2002Find this resource:

6 http://www.eyeandear.org.au/content/Document/GP%20Forms/Updated%20golden%20eye%20rules%20V081211.pdf

7 Wenzel T et al. Psychiatric disorders in patients with blepharospasm - a reactive pattern? J Psychosom Res 2000; 48(6):589–91. PubMed ID: 11033379 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11033379Find this resource:

8 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2676990/

9 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11052590

10 Snell R et al. The ocular appendages. In Clinical anatomy of the eye, 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science., 1998, 90–130Find this resource:

11 Ferris J. Basic sciences in ophthalmology: a self-assessment text. London: BMJ Books, Chapter 4Find this resource:

12 Cokkeser Y. Comparative external versus endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy: results in 115 patients (130 eyes). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000; 123(4):488–91. PubMed ID: 11020191 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11020191Find this resource:

13 http://www.architalbiol.org/aib/article/view/149269

14 Lutz T. Crying: the natural and cultural history of tears. New York: WW Norton; 1999Find this resource:

15 Mehta M. Retinoblastoma. Singaore Med J 2012; 53(2):128–35. PubMed ID: 22337189 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22337189Find this resource:

16 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10704567

17 http://www.bmj.com/content/339/bmj.b2624?variant=long&hwoasp=authn%3A1429696587%3A4044180%3A3259582730%3A0%3A0%3ACD67xBKarRDaAb7hneMuNA%3D%3D

18 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=18528318

19 http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMicm1311966

20 http://www.uptodate.com/contents/orbital-cellulitis?source=search_result&search=orbital+swelling&selectedTitle=1~150

21 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=15533168

22 http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1218009-overview

23 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=20720253

24 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16932060

25 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=15878054

26 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1123788/

27 http://www.bmj.com/rapid-response/2011/10/29/re-paradox-superior-oblique

28 http://www.cochrane.org/CD009272/EYES_is-it-better-to-do-strabismus-squint-surgery-before-or-after-completing-amblyopia-lazy-eye-treatment

29 http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1189759-overview

30 http://journals.lww.com/jneuro-ophthalmology/Fulltext/2006/09000/Pupil_Abnormalities_in_Selected_Autonomic.13.aspx

31 http://www.jpeds.com/article/S0022-3476(14)00101-2/abstract

32 Young TL et al. Evidence that a locus for familial high myopia maps to chromosome 18p. Am J Hum Genet 1998; 63(1):109–19. PubMed ID: 9634508 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9634508Find this resource:

33 Crewther DP. The role of photoreceptors in the control of refractive state. Prog Retin Eye Res 2000; 19(4):421–57. PubMed ID: 10785617 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10785617Find this resource:

34 Review of eight studies by Dr Justin Sherwin and Dr Anthony Khawaja, covering 10,400 participants. American Academy of Opthalmology; 2011 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/children/8846020/Time-spent-outdoors-linked-to-better-eyesight.html?mobile=basic

35 Taylor K et al. Interventions for unilateral and bilateral refractive amblyopia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Apr 18;4:CD005137. PubMed ID: 22513928 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22513928Find this resource:

36 Snell R et al. (1998). The visual pathway. In Clinical anatomy of the eye, 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 1998, 379–90Find this resource:

37 Dawson DG et al. Blindness after liver transplant. Surv Ophthalmol 2002; 47(4):387–91. PubMed ID: 12161214 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12161214Find this resource:

38 Liddell BJ et al. A direct brainstem-amygdala-cortical ‘alarm’ system for subliminal signals of fear. Neuroimage 2005; 24(1):235–43. PubMed ID: 15588615Find this resource:

39 http://archopht.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1918809

40 http://www.bmj.com/content/341/bmj.c4976.long

41 http://bjo.bmj.com/content/88/9/1159?ijkey=e68183b88ae7a0921ffd3c931a0d7d86d21cb24e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

42 http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/798811-overview

43 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21453963

44 http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1758756

45 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14525879

46 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=18769199

47 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3529813/

48 http://www.ijmm.org/article.asp?issn=0255-0857;year=2015;volume=33;issue=2;spage=321;epage=323;aulast=Sarguna

49 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3852161/

50 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=15967190

51 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24099670

52 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=21360492

53 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=15818722

54 http://cks.nice.org.uk/giant-cell-arteritis#!scenario

55 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=15953446

56 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=1734247

57 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=20584027

58 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=15486774

59 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=16682596

60 http://www.rcophth.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/2010-SCI-095-RVO-Interim-Guidelines-Dec-2010-FINAL.pdf

61 NICE. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant for the treatment of macular oedema secondary to retinal vein occlusion (TA 229). NICE; 2011 https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ta229

62 Manford M. [Complex visual hallucinations. Clinical and neurobiological insights.] Brain 1998; 121 (Pt 10):1819–40. PubMed ID: 9798740 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9798740Find this resource:

63 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2415/10/31/

64 http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1226030-overview

65 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22749677

66 http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1223154-overview

67 http://www.mrcophth.com/opticdisccases/drusen.html

68 Kourlas H et al. Ranibizumab for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular de- generation: a review. Clin Ther 2007; 29(9):1850–61. PubMed ID: 18035187Find this resource:

69 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21526923/?i=1&fro

70 http://www.bmj.com/content/350/bmj.h1377?hwoasp=authn%3A1432473395%3A4044180%3A2548416300%3A0%3A0%3AxZz%2F4xSBjPksJ2ssoHsPvg%3D%3D

71 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18201136

72 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11869572

73 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21609225

74 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21620475

75 http://www.rnib.org.uk/knowledge-and-research-hub/key-information-and-statistics

76 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18071740

77 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC28563/

78 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24325433

79 http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2007/mar/31/homes2

80 http://whqlibdoc.who.int/bulletin/2004/Vol82-No11/bulletin_2004_82(11)_844-851.pdf?ua=1

81 NICE. Glaucoma: diagnosis and management (CG 85). NICE, 2009 https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg85/chapter/introduction

82 Traffic gap judgment in people with significant peripheral field loss. Optom Vis Sci 2008; 85(1):26–36. PubMed ID: 18174838Find this resource:

83 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=19279343

84 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=15994659

85 Konstas AG, et al. Twenty-four hour efficacy with the dorzolamide/timolol-fixed combination compared with the brimonidine/timolol-fixed combination in primary open- angle glaucoma. Eye (Lond) 2012; 26(1):80–7. PubMed ID: 21960068 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21960068Find this resource:

86 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=22332202

87 http://www.reviewofophthalmology.com/content/d/cover_focus/i/1315/c/25316/

88 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=15994659

89 Hashimoto M. Normal-tension glaucoma with reversed ophthalmic artery flow. Am J Ophthalmol 2000; 130(5):670–2. PubMed ID: 11078851 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11078851Find this resource:

90 Danesh-Meyer HV et al. What do people with glaucoma know about their condition? A comparative cross-sectional incidence and prevalence survey. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2008; 36(1):13–18. PubMed ID: 18190599 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18190599Find this resource:

91 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10707918

92 McCarty CA et al. A review of the epidemiologic evidence linking ultraviolet radiation and cataracts. Dev Ophthalmol 2002; 35:21–31. PubMedID: 12061276 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12061276Find this resource:

93 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=24268861

94 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18090891

95 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18274562

96 http://psych.ucalgary.ca/PACE/VA-Lab/AVDE-Website/default.html

97 Snell R et al. (1998). The eyeball. In Clinical anatomy of the eye, 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 1998, 132–212Find this resource:

98 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3131731/

99 http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1224320-overview

100 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24470932

101 http://www.bmj.com/content/328/7440/625

102 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3779421/#ref22

103 http://pmj.bmj.com/content/87/1028/417.full.pdf?hwoasp=authn%3A1429025722%3A4044180%3A3259582730%3A0%3A0%3A7eeNCBSz5YtglYWC3KqjBQ%3D%3D

104 http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng3/chapter/1-recommendations#antenatal-care-for-women-with-diabetes-2

105 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1576/toag.8.3.141.27248/pdf

106 http://www.rcophth.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/2013-SCI-301-FINAL-DR-GUIDELINES-DEC-2012-updated-July-2013.pdf

107 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S153718911200095X

108 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15534123

109 NICE. Type 2 diabetes in adults: management (NG 28). NICE; 2015 http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng28

110 http://www.optic-disc.org/tutorials/optic_disc_basics/page12.html

111 http://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-and-differential-diagnosis-of-papilledema

112 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=20557939

113 http://www.bmj.com/content/337/bmj.a2360

114 Marmor MF, et al. Revised recommendations on screening for chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Ophthalmology 2011; 118(2):415–22. PubMed ID: 21292109 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21292109Find this resource:

115 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10647728

116 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19145123

117 Stocks ME et al. Effect of water, sanitation, and hygiene on the prevention of trachoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med 2014; 11(2):e1001605. PubMed ID: 24586120 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3934994/Find this resource:

118 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2840490/

119 http://www.dovepress.com/articles.php?article_id=7551

120 http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org/content/93/1/179.full

121 http://www.mectizan.org/

122 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=21785348

123 http://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-44888-5_3

124 Tatlipinar S et al. Topical ciclosporin in the treatment of ocular surface disorders. Br J Ophthalmol 2005; 89(10):1363–7. PubMed ID: 16170133 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16170133Find this resource:

125 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/pai.12197/abstract

126 Maichuk IuF. [New aspects in drug therapy of ocular allergies] Vestn Oftalmol 2000; 116(5):10–14. PubMed ID: 11221368 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11221368Find this resource:

127 Blaiss MS. Evolving paradigm in the management of allergic rhinitis-associated ocular symptoms: role of intranasal corticosteroids. Curr Med Res Opin 2008; 24(3):821–36. PubMed ID: 18257976 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18257976Find this resource:

128 Heitz RF et al. Leonardo da Vinci: An assessment on his discourses on image formation in the eye. In Fiorentini A et al. (eds) Advances in diagnostic visual optics. Dusseldorf: Springer-Verlag; 1987, 19–26Find this resource:

129 Siegel IM. The X-Chrom lens. On seeing red. Surv Ophthalmol 1981; 25(5):312–24. PubMed ID: 6971497 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6971497Find this resource:

130 http://www.aocle.org/livingL/clare.html

131 Nassaralla BA et al. The effect of hinge position and depth plate on the rate of recovery of corneal sensation following LASIK. Am J Ophthalmol 2005; 139(1):118–24. PubMed ID: 15652836 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15652836Find this resource:

132 Alió JL et al. Ten-year follow-up of laser in situ keratomileusis for high myopia. Am J Ophthalmol 2008; 145(1):55–64. PubMed ID: 17996210 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17996210Find this resource:

133 Kato M et al. Five-year outcome of LASIK for myopia. Ophthalmology 2008; 115(5):839–844.e2. PubMed ID: 17900692 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17900692Find this resource:

134 Terzi E et al. [Complications after refractive surgery abroad]. Ophthalmologe 2008; 105(5):474–9. PubMed ID: 17896110 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17896110Find this resource:

135 http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v32/n9/full/nbt0914-856.html

136 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1442-9071.2011.02590.x/full

137 http://www.visionaware.org/blog/visionaware-blog/the-argus-ii-retinal-prosthesis-bionic-eye-receives-medicare-approval/12