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Paediatrics 

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date: 21 August 2019

Chapter 2: Paediatrics

1 NICE. Feverish illness in children: assessment and initial management in children younger than 5 years of age (Clinical Guideline 47). NICE, 2007. http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG47

2 Harndon A. Critique of NICE traffic-light system: not evidence based; too much emphasis on vital signs (which vary greatly). it may be better to look at alertness, activity, colour and respiratory effort. BMJ 2007. http://www.bmj.com/Find this resource:

3 Hewson PH et al. A simple hospital triaging system for infants with acute illness. J Paediatr Child Health 1995; 31(1):29–32. PubMed ID: 7748685. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=7748685&from=cqsrFind this resource:

4 Morley CJ et al. Symptoms and signs in infants younger than 6 months of age correlated with the severity of their illness. Pediatrics 1991; 88(6):1119–24. PubMed ID: 1956728. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=1956728&from=cqsrFind this resource:

5 Godbole P et al. Bilious vomiting in the newborn: How often is it pathologic? J Pediatr Surg 2002; 37(6):909–11. PubMed ID: 12037761. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=12037761&from=cqsrFind this resource:

6 Sadow KB et al. Bilious emesis in the pediatric emergency department: etiology and outcome. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2002; 41(7):475–9. PubMed ID: 12365309. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=12365309&from=cqsrFind this resource:

7 Millar AJ et al. Malrotation and volvulus in infancy and childhood. Semin Pediatr Surg 2003; 12(4):229–36. PubMed ID: 14655161. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=14655161&from=cqsrFind this resource:

8 Hiscock H. The crying baby. Aust Fam Physician 2006; 35(9):680–4. PubMed ID: 16969435. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=16969435&from=cqsrFind this resource:

9 Hiscock H et al. Problem crying in infancy. Med J Aust 2004; 181(9):507–12. PubMed ID: 15516199. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=15516199&from=cqsrFind this resource:

10 Miller-Loncar C. Infant colic and feeding difficulties. Arch Dis Child 2004; 89:908–12. http://adc.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/abstract/89/10/908Find this resource:

11 Michelle M. A systematic review of treatments for infant colic. Pediatrics 2000; 106(Suppl 1):184–90. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/106/1/S1/184Find this resource:

12 Infant colic. BMJ 1998 Responses to a BMJ paper. http://www.bmj.com/cgi/eletters/316/7144/1563

13 Keefe MR et al. Reducing parenting stress in families with irritable infants. Nurs Res 2006; 55(3):198–205. PubMed ID: 16708044. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=16708044&from=cqsrFind this resource:

14 Langøen A et al. [Diaper dermatitis. Classification, occurrence, causes, prevention and treatment.] Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 1993; 113(14):1712–5. PubMed ID: 8322298. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=8322298&from=cqsrFind this resource:

15 Weston WL et al. Diaper dermatitis: current concepts. Pediatrics 1980; 66(4):532–6. PubMed ID: 7432838. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=7432838&from=cqsrFind this resource:

16 Thomsen K. Seborrhoeic dermatitis and napkin dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol Suppl (Stockh) 1981; 95:40–2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6211885Find this resource:

17 MA CT et al. Associations between housing instability and food insecurity with health care access in low-income children. Ambul Pediatr 2008; 8(1):50–7. PubMed ID: 18191782. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=18191782&from=cqsrFind this resource:

18 Kapoor SH et al. Neonatal resuscitation. IJCCM 2007; 11(2):81–9. http://www.ijccm.org/article.asp?issn=0972-5229;year=2007;volume=11;issue=2;spage=81;epage=89;aulast=KapoorFind this resource:

19 Simmonds A et al. Addressing the ‘New’ NEC: Part I: rediscovering the basics. Indian J Pediatr 2006; 73(11):1011–18. PubMed ID: 17127784. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17127784&from=cqsrFind this resource:

20 Whitelaw A. Core concepts: intraventricular hemorrhage. NeoReviews 2011; 12;e94–e101 http://neoreviews.aappublications.org/content/12/2/e94.fullFind this resource:

21 Mercer JS et al. Delayed cord clamping in very preterm infants reduces the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage and late-onset sepsis: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 2006; 117(4):1235–42. PubMed ID: 16585320. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=16585320&from=cqsrFind this resource:

22 Gupta SN et al. Intracranial hemorrhage in term newborns: management and outcomes. Pediatr Neurol 2009 (40(1):1–12 PubMEd ID: 19068247 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19068247Find this resource:

23 Knight DB et al. Neonatal shaken baby syndrome – lessons to be learned/Author’s reply. Arch Dis Child 2003; 88(2)F161–162. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=20&did=000000304712981&SrchMode=3&sid=1&Fmt=7&retrieveGroup=0&VType=PQD&VInst=PROD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1098077205&clientId=64216Find this resource:

24 Callaghan LA et al. Infant to staff ratios and risk of mortality in very low birthweight infants. Arch Dis Child 2003; 88(2):F94–7. http://fn.bmj.com/content/88/2/F94.fullFind this resource:

25 Fleck BW. Therapy for retinopathy of prematurity. Lancet 1999; 353(9148):166–7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9923868Find this resource:

26 UK Retinopathy of Prematurity Guideline. Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, Royal College of Ophthalmologists, British Association of Perinatal Medicine& BLISS; May 2008. https://www.rcophth.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/2008-SCI-021-Guidelines-Retinopathy-of-Prematurity.pdf

27 Roberts TE. Economic evaluation and randomised controlled trial of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: UK collaborative trial. The Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Economics Working Group. BMJ 1998; 317(7163):911–15; discussion 915–16. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9756807Find this resource:

28 Kossel H. Do we need new indications for ECMO in neonates pretreated with high-frequency ventilation and/or inhaled nitric oxide? Intensive Care Med 2000; 26(10):1489–95. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11126261Find this resource:

29 Mahmoud, RA et al. Current methods of non-invasive ventilatory support for neonates. Paediatr Resp Rev 12(3):196–205 PubMed ID:21722849 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21722849Find this resource:

30 Spence K. Nasal versus oral intubation for mechanical ventilation of newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; 2:CD000948. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10796391Find this resource:

31 Greenough A. Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; 1:CD000456. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11279692Find this resource:

32 Soll R. Patient-triggered ventilation of the newborn. Lancet 2000; 356(9224):90–1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10963241Find this resource:

33 Greenough A et al. Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; 1:CD000456 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18253979Find this resource:

34 Tyson J. Intensive care for extreme prematurity--moving beyond gestational age. NEJM 2008; 358:1672. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa073059Find this resource:

35 Shahid SK. Efficacy and safety of cefepime in late-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia in infants: a pilot randomized and controlled study. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2008; 102(1):63–71. PubMed ID: 18186979. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=18186979&from=cqsrFind this resource:

36 Spence K et al. Nasal versus oral intubation for mechanical ventilation of newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1999; 2:CD000948. http://www.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab000948.htmlFind this resource:

37 Kolatat T et al. Airway complications in neonates who received mechanical ventilation. J Med Assoc Thai 2002; 85 Suppl 2:S455–62. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12403220Find this resource:

38 Caraballo R et al. Pyridoxine dependence: the importance of the clinical diagnosis and early treatment. Rev Neurol 2004; 38(1):49–52. PubMed ID: 14730491. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=14730491&from=cqsrFind this resource:

39 University of California San Francisco. Intensive care nursery house staff manual. UCSF, http://www.ucsfhealth.org/childrens/health_professionals/manuals/48_Seizures.pdf

40 Royal Prince Alfred Hospital Circulatory Support. Department of neonatal medicine protocol book. http://www.cs.nsw.gov.au/rpa/neonatal/html/newprot/circ_support.htm

41 Craig JV et al. Infrared ear thermometry compared with rectal thermometry in children: a systematic review. Lancet 2002; 360(9333):603–9. PubMed ID: 12241932. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=12241932&from=cqsrFind this resource:

42 Wiswell TE. Advances in the treatment of the meconium aspiration syndrome. Acta Paediatr Suppl 2001; 90(436):28–30. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11332953Find this resource:

43 Kezirian EJ. Cost and cost-effectiveness of universal screening for hearing loss in newborns. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2001; 124(4):359–67. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11283492Find this resource:

44 Mizrah EM. Neonatal seizures and neonatal epileptic syndromes. Neurol Clin 2001; 19(2):427–63. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11358751Find this resource:

45 Fischer D et al. [Sudden death of twins: botulism because of contamination by pap vegetables] Klin Padiatr 2004; 216(1):31–5. PubMed ID: 14747969. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=14747969&from=cqsrFind this resource:

46 Verrijn Stuart AA et al. Shake hands: diagnosing a floppy infant--myotonic dystrophy and the congenital subtype: a difficult perinatal diagnosis. J Perinat Med 2000; 28(6):497–501. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=11155437&from=cqsrFind this resource:

47 NICE. Neonatal jaundice: Recognition and treatment of neonatal jaundice (Clinical Guideline 98). NICE; 2010. http://www.nice.org.uk/cg98

48 Bertini G. Prevention of bilirubin encephalopathy. Biol Neonate 2001;79(3–4):219–23. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11275655Find this resource:

49 Harris MC. Developmental follow-up of breastfed term and near-term infants with marked hyperbilirubinemia. Pediatrics 2001; 107(5):1075–80. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11331689Find this resource:

50 Lucas GN. Neonatal jaundice due to ABO incompatibility in Sri Lankan. Indian J Pediatr 1996; 63(3):381–4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10830015Find this resource:

51 Badens C. [Glucose-6–phosphate dehydrogenase et neonatal jaundice] Presse Med 2001; 30(11):524–6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11317924Find this resource:

52 Wolf MJ. Extreme hyperbilirubinaemia in Zimbabwean neonates: neurodevelopmental outcome at 4 months. Eur J Pediatr 1997; 156(10):803–7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9365074Find this resource:

53 Hansen TW. Acute management of extreme neonatal jaundice – the potential benefits of intensified phototherapy and interruption of enterohepatic bilirubin circulation. Acta Paediatr 1997; 86(8):843–6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9307164Find this resource:

54 Tan KL. Phototherapy for neonatal jaundice. Acta Paediatr 1996; 85(3):277–9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8695979Find this resource:

55 Hanko E. Spectrum of outcome in infants with extreme neonatal jaundice. Acta Paediatr 2001; 90(7):782–5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11519982Find this resource:

56 Mari G. Noninvasive diagnosis by Doppler ultrasonography of fetal anemia due to maternal red-cell alloimmunization. Collaborative Group for Doppler Assessment of the Blood Velocity in Anemic Fetuses. N Engl J Med 2000; 342(1):9–14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10620643Find this resource:

57 Hayde M. Rhesus isoimmunization: increased hemolysis during early infancy. Pediatr Res 1997; 41(5):716–21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9128296Find this resource:

58 Chilcott J et al. The economics of routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis for pregnant women who are rhesus negative. BJOG 2004; 111(9):903–7. PubMed ID: 15327602. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=15327602&from=cqsrFind this resource:

59 Greenough A. Rhesus disease: postnatal management and outcome. Eur J Pediatr 1999; 158(9):689–93. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10485296Find this resource:

60 Haverkamp F. Good prognosis for psychomotor development in survivors with nonimmune hydrops fetalis. BJOG 2000; 107(2):282–4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10688515Find this resource:

61 De Halleux V et al. Decreasing oxygen saturation in very early preterm newborn infants after transfusion. Arch Dis Child 2003; 88: F163. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1721506/Find this resource:

62 Ainsworth SB. Pumactant and poractant alfa for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in neonates born at 25–29 weeks’ gestation: a randomised trial. Lancet 2000; 355(9213):1387–92. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10791521Find this resource:

63 Henderson-Smart DJ. Elective high frequency oscillatory ventilation versus conventional ventilation for acute pulmonary dysfunction in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; 2:CD000104. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10796129Find this resource:

64 Moriette G. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation in the management of respiratory distress syndrome. Biol Neonate 2000; 77 Suppl 1:14–16. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10828581Find this resource:

65 Howlett A et al. Inositol for respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; 4:CD000366. PubMed ID: 14583919. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=14583919&from=cqsrFind this resource:

66 A few parents want heroic interventions irrespective of the chance of success. If this is not in the baby’s best interests you may need to apply to the Courts to settle the issue. See Royal College of Paediatricsand Child Health. Witholding or withdrawing life sustaining treatment in children: a framework for practice, 2nd ed. 2004. http://www.gmc-uk.org/Witholding.pdf_40818793.pdf

67 Woolley H. Imparting the diagnosis of life threatening illness in children. BMJ 1989; 298(6688):1623–6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2503155Find this resource:

68 NHS breaches right to respect for private life and moral integrity – European Court of Human rights. Jusge Pellonpsaa; reported in The Times, March 11, 2004, p. 39. http://www.worldlii.org/eu/cases/ECHR/2004/102.htmlFind this resource:

69 Eichenwald E et al. Management and outcomes of very low birthweight. NEJM 2008; 358:1700–11. http://www.nejm.org/Find this resource:

70 Bancalari E. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia and surfactant. Biol Neonate 2001; 80 Suppl 1:7–13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11359038Find this resource:

71 Welty SE. Rationale for antioxidant therapy in premature infants to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Nutr Rev 2001; 59(1 Pt 1):10–17. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11281247Find this resource:

72 Bancalari E. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia and surfactant. Biol Neonate 2001; 80 Suppl 1:7–13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11359038Find this resource:

73 Rutkowska M. [Changes in the clinical picture of bronchopulmonary dysplasia] Med Wieku Rozwoj 2000; 4(2 Suppl 3):43–57. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11328969Find this resource:

74 Gnanaratnem J. Neonatal acute respiratory failure. Curr Opin Pediatr 2000; 12(3):227–32. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10836158Find this resource:

75 Winn HN. Neonatal pulmonary hypoplasia and perinatal mortality in patients with midtrimester rupture of amniotic membranes – a critical analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 182(6):1638–44. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/queryd.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&dFind this resource:

76 Morag I et al. Excessive weight gain as a possible predictor of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants. Isr Med Assoc J 2007; 9(1):24–7. PubMed ID: 17274351. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17274351&from=cqsrFind this resource:

77 Bin-Nun A et al. Oral probiotics prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight neonates. J Pediatr 2005; 147(2):192–6. PubMed ID: 16126048. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=16126048&from=cqsrFind this resource:

78 Scheifele DW. Comparison of two antibiotic regimens for neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. J Antimicrob Chemother 1987; 20(3):421–9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3680079Find this resource:

79 Ververidis M. The clinical significance of thrombocytopenia in neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis. J Pediatr Surg 2001; 36(5):799–803. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11329593Find this resource:

80 Farnoff AA. Meconium aspiration: historical aspects. J Perinatol 2008; 28 Suppl 3:S3–7. PubMed ID:19057607. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19057607Find this resource:

81 Yeh TF. Core concepts: meconium aspiration syndrome: pathogenesis and current management. NeoReviews 2010; 11; e503–e512. http://neoreviews.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/neoreviews;11/9/e503Find this resource:

82 Wylie J et al. Part 11: Neonatal resuscitation. 2010 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. Circulation. 2010; 122(16 Suppl 2):S516–38. PubMed ID: 20956259 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20956259Find this resource:

83 Vain NE et al. What (not) to do at and after delivery? Prevention and management of meconium aspiration syndrome. Early Hum Dev 2009; 85(10):621–6 PubMed ID: 19833461 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19833461Find this resource:

84 von Kries R et al. Oral mixed micellar vitamin K for prevention of late vitamin K deficiency bleeding. Arch Dis Child 2003; 88: F109–12. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=21&did=000000304712681&SrchMode=3&sid=1&Fmt=7&retrieveGroup=0&VType=PQD&VInst=PROD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1098077343&clientId=64216Find this resource:

85 Ansell P. Vitamin K policies and midwifery practice: questionnaire survey. BMJ 2001 May 12;322(7295):1148–52. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11348908Find this resource:

86 Shirahata A. Diagnosis of DIC in very low birth weight infants. Semin Thromb Hemost 1998;24(5):467–71. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9834015Find this resource:

87 Pugh M. DIC screening in the newborn. Neonatal Netw 1997; 16(7):57–60. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9369697Find this resource:

88 Kreuz W. Neonatal sepsis: a challenge in hemostaseology. Semin Thromb Hemost 1999; 25(6):531–5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10632474Find this resource:

89 Saxonhouse MA et al. The evaluation and management of neonatal coagulation disorders. Semin Perinatol 2009; 33(1):52–65 PubMed ID: 19167582. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19167582Find this resource:

90 Shuster S. Duct disruption, a new explanation of miliaria. Acta Derm Venereol 1997; 77(1):1–3. PubMed ID: 9059666. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=9059666&from=cqsrFind this resource:

91 Straka BF et al. Congenital miliaria crystallina. Cutis 1991; 47(2):103–6. PubMed ID: 2001628. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=2001628&from=cqsrFind this resource:

92 Haas N et al. Miliaria crystallina in an intensive care setting. Clin Exp Dermatol 2004; 29(1):32–4. PubMed ID: 14723716. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=14723716&from=cqsrFind this resource:

93 Hidano A. Statistical survey of skin changes in Japanese neonates. Pediatr Dermatol 1986; 3(2):140–4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3952030Find this resource:

94 Anbu AT et al. Fluoxetine withdrawal syndrome in the newborn. Indian Pediatr 2006; 43(1):66–9. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=16465011&from=cqsrFind this resource:

95 Eder H et al. Buprenorphine in pregnancy. Psychiatr Prax 2001; 28(6):267–9. PubMed ID: 11533891. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=11533891&from=cqsrFind this resource:

96 Yu VY. Extrauterine growth restriction in preterm infants: importance of optimizing nutrition in neonatal intensive care units. Croat Med J 2005; 46(5):737–43. PubMed ID: 16158465. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=16158465&from=cqsrFind this resource:

97 Tyson JE. Trophic feedings for parenterally fed infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; 3:CD000504. PubMed ID: 16034854. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=16034854&from=cqsrFind this resource:

98 McClure RJ. Randomised controlled study of clinical outcome following trophic feeding. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2000; 82(1):F29–33. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10634838Find this resource:

99 Bhave S. Pediatric parenteral nutrition in India. Indian J Pediatr 1999; 66(1 Suppl):S141–9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11132460Find this resource:

100 Schanler RJ et al. Feeding strategies for premature infants: randomized trial of gastrointestinal priming and tube-feeding method. Pediatrics 1999; 103:434–9. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/103/2/434Find this resource:

101 Hoddinott P. Qualitative study of decisions about infant feeding among women in east end of London. BMJ 1999; 318(7175):30–4. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/318/7175/30Find this resource:

102 Hanna N. Effect of storage on breast milk antioxidant activity. Arch Dis Child Fetal and Neonatal Ed 2004;89:F518–F520. http://fn.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/abstract/89/6/F518Find this resource:

103 Rossoni E et al. Emergent synchronous bursting of oxytocin neuronal network. PLoS Comput Biol 2008; 4(7): e1000123. http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pcbi.1000123Find this resource:

104 Baumgartner T et al. Oxytocin shapes the neural circuitry of trust and trust adaptation in humans. Neuron 2008; 58(4):639–50. PubMed ID: 18498743. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=18498743&from=cqsrFind this resource:

105 de Onis M et al. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 growth charts and the growth of breastfed infants. Acta Paediatr 2003; 92(4):413–9. PubMed ID: 12801105 http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=1Find this resource:

106 Das UN. A perinatal strategy to prevent coronary heart disease. Nutrition 2003; 19(11–12):1022–7. PubMed ID: 14624957 http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=14624957&from=cqsrFind this resource:

107 Willatts P. Effect of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant formula on problem solving at 10 months of age. Lancet 1998; 352(9129):688–91. PubMed ID: 9728984. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=9728984&from=cqsrFind this resource:

108 Zanardo V. Beta endorphin concentrations in human milk. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2001; 33(2):160–4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11568517Find this resource:

109 Chandra RK. Prospective studies of the effect of breast feeding on incidence of infection and allergy. Acta Paediatr Scand 1979; 68(5):691–4. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=118634&from=cqsrFind this resource:

110 WITHDRAWN. Cow’s milk protein avoidance and development of childhood wheeze in children with a family history of atopy. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=12137717&from=cqsr

111 Gruskay FL. Comparison of breast, cow, and soy feedings in the prevention of onset of allergic disease: a 15–year prospective study. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1982; 21(8):486–91. PubMed ID: 7200847. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=7200847&from=cqsrFind this resource:

112 Ghaderi R et al. Effect of breast-feeding on the development of atopic dermatitis. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2005; 4(3):129–32. PubMed ID: 17301435. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17301435&from=cqsrFind this resource:

113 Ford G. New contented little baby book. London: Vermilion; 2002. http://www.amazon.co.uk/New-Contented-Little-Baby-Book/dp/0091882338Find this resource:

114 Cadwell K et al. Pain reduction and treatment of sore nipples in nursing mothers. J Perinat Educ 2004; 13(1):29–35. PubMed ID: 17273373. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17273373&from=cqsrFind this resource:

115 Fewtrell MS et al. Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: what is the evidence to support current recommendations? Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 85(2):635S–638S. PubMed ID: 17284769. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17284769&from=cqsrFind this resource:

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