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date: 04 August 2020

Chapter 2: Paediatrics

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5 Godbole P et al. Bilious vomiting in the newborn: How often is it pathologic? J Pediatr Surg 2002; 37(6):909–11. PubMed ID: 12037761. this resource:

6 Sadow KB et al. Bilious emesis in the pediatric emergency department: etiology and outcome. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2002; 41(7):475–9. PubMed ID: 12365309. this resource:

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17 MA CT et al. Associations between housing instability and food insecurity with health care access in low-income children. Ambul Pediatr 2008; 8(1):50–7. PubMed ID: 18191782. this resource:

18 Kapoor SH et al. Neonatal resuscitation. IJCCM 2007; 11(2):81–9.;year=2007;volume=11;issue=2;spage=81;epage=89;aulast=KapoorFind this resource:

19 Simmonds A et al. Addressing the ‘New’ NEC: Part I: rediscovering the basics. Indian J Pediatr 2006; 73(11):1011–18. PubMed ID: 17127784. this resource:

20 Whitelaw A. Core concepts: intraventricular hemorrhage. NeoReviews 2011; 12;e94–e101 this resource:

21 Mercer JS et al. Delayed cord clamping in very preterm infants reduces the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage and late-onset sepsis: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 2006; 117(4):1235–42. PubMed ID: 16585320. this resource:

22 Gupta SN et al. Intracranial hemorrhage in term newborns: management and outcomes. Pediatr Neurol 2009 (40(1):1–12 PubMEd ID: 19068247 this resource:

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24 Callaghan LA et al. Infant to staff ratios and risk of mortality in very low birthweight infants. Arch Dis Child 2003; 88(2):F94–7. this resource:

25 Fleck BW. Therapy for retinopathy of prematurity. Lancet 1999; 353(9148):166–7. this resource:

26 UK Retinopathy of Prematurity Guideline. Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, Royal College of Ophthalmologists, British Association of Perinatal Medicine& BLISS; May 2008.

27 Roberts TE. Economic evaluation and randomised controlled trial of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: UK collaborative trial. The Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Economics Working Group. BMJ 1998; 317(7163):911–15; discussion 915–16. this resource:

28 Kossel H. Do we need new indications for ECMO in neonates pretreated with high-frequency ventilation and/or inhaled nitric oxide? Intensive Care Med 2000; 26(10):1489–95. this resource:

29 Mahmoud, RA et al. Current methods of non-invasive ventilatory support for neonates. Paediatr Resp Rev 12(3):196–205 PubMed ID:21722849 this resource:

30 Spence K. Nasal versus oral intubation for mechanical ventilation of newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; 2:CD000948. this resource:

31 Greenough A. Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; 1:CD000456. this resource:

32 Soll R. Patient-triggered ventilation of the newborn. Lancet 2000; 356(9224):90–1. this resource:

33 Greenough A et al. Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; 1:CD000456 this resource:

34 Tyson J. Intensive care for extreme prematurity--moving beyond gestational age. NEJM 2008; 358:1672. this resource:

35 Shahid SK. Efficacy and safety of cefepime in late-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia in infants: a pilot randomized and controlled study. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2008; 102(1):63–71. PubMed ID: 18186979. this resource:

36 Spence K et al. Nasal versus oral intubation for mechanical ventilation of newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1999; 2:CD000948. this resource:

37 Kolatat T et al. Airway complications in neonates who received mechanical ventilation. J Med Assoc Thai 2002; 85 Suppl 2:S455–62. this resource:

38 Caraballo R et al. Pyridoxine dependence: the importance of the clinical diagnosis and early treatment. Rev Neurol 2004; 38(1):49–52. PubMed ID: 14730491. this resource:

39 University of California San Francisco. Intensive care nursery house staff manual. UCSF,

40 Royal Prince Alfred Hospital Circulatory Support. Department of neonatal medicine protocol book.

41 Craig JV et al. Infrared ear thermometry compared with rectal thermometry in children: a systematic review. Lancet 2002; 360(9333):603–9. PubMed ID: 12241932. this resource:

42 Wiswell TE. Advances in the treatment of the meconium aspiration syndrome. Acta Paediatr Suppl 2001; 90(436):28–30. this resource:

43 Kezirian EJ. Cost and cost-effectiveness of universal screening for hearing loss in newborns. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2001; 124(4):359–67. this resource:

44 Mizrah EM. Neonatal seizures and neonatal epileptic syndromes. Neurol Clin 2001; 19(2):427–63. this resource:

45 Fischer D et al. [Sudden death of twins: botulism because of contamination by pap vegetables] Klin Padiatr 2004; 216(1):31–5. PubMed ID: 14747969. this resource:

46 Verrijn Stuart AA et al. Shake hands: diagnosing a floppy infant--myotonic dystrophy and the congenital subtype: a difficult perinatal diagnosis. J Perinat Med 2000; 28(6):497–501. this resource:

47 NICE. Neonatal jaundice: Recognition and treatment of neonatal jaundice (Clinical Guideline 98). NICE; 2010.

48 Bertini G. Prevention of bilirubin encephalopathy. Biol Neonate 2001;79(3–4):219–23. this resource:

49 Harris MC. Developmental follow-up of breastfed term and near-term infants with marked hyperbilirubinemia. Pediatrics 2001; 107(5):1075–80. this resource:

50 Lucas GN. Neonatal jaundice due to ABO incompatibility in Sri Lankan. Indian J Pediatr 1996; 63(3):381–4. this resource:

51 Badens C. [Glucose-6–phosphate dehydrogenase et neonatal jaundice] Presse Med 2001; 30(11):524–6. this resource:

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53 Hansen TW. Acute management of extreme neonatal jaundice – the potential benefits of intensified phototherapy and interruption of enterohepatic bilirubin circulation. Acta Paediatr 1997; 86(8):843–6. this resource:

54 Tan KL. Phototherapy for neonatal jaundice. Acta Paediatr 1996; 85(3):277–9. this resource:

55 Hanko E. Spectrum of outcome in infants with extreme neonatal jaundice. Acta Paediatr 2001; 90(7):782–5. this resource:

56 Mari G. Noninvasive diagnosis by Doppler ultrasonography of fetal anemia due to maternal red-cell alloimmunization. Collaborative Group for Doppler Assessment of the Blood Velocity in Anemic Fetuses. N Engl J Med 2000; 342(1):9–14. this resource:

57 Hayde M. Rhesus isoimmunization: increased hemolysis during early infancy. Pediatr Res 1997; 41(5):716–21. this resource:

58 Chilcott J et al. The economics of routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis for pregnant women who are rhesus negative. BJOG 2004; 111(9):903–7. PubMed ID: 15327602. this resource:

59 Greenough A. Rhesus disease: postnatal management and outcome. Eur J Pediatr 1999; 158(9):689–93. this resource:

60 Haverkamp F. Good prognosis for psychomotor development in survivors with nonimmune hydrops fetalis. BJOG 2000; 107(2):282–4. this resource:

61 De Halleux V et al. Decreasing oxygen saturation in very early preterm newborn infants after transfusion. Arch Dis Child 2003; 88: F163. this resource:

62 Ainsworth SB. Pumactant and poractant alfa for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in neonates born at 25–29 weeks’ gestation: a randomised trial. Lancet 2000; 355(9213):1387–92. this resource:

63 Henderson-Smart DJ. Elective high frequency oscillatory ventilation versus conventional ventilation for acute pulmonary dysfunction in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; 2:CD000104. this resource:

64 Moriette G. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation in the management of respiratory distress syndrome. Biol Neonate 2000; 77 Suppl 1:14–16. this resource:

65 Howlett A et al. Inositol for respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; 4:CD000366. PubMed ID: 14583919. this resource:

66 A few parents want heroic interventions irrespective of the chance of success. If this is not in the baby’s best interests you may need to apply to the Courts to settle the issue. See Royal College of Paediatricsand Child Health. Witholding or withdrawing life sustaining treatment in children: a framework for practice, 2nd ed. 2004.

67 Woolley H. Imparting the diagnosis of life threatening illness in children. BMJ 1989; 298(6688):1623–6. this resource:

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69 Eichenwald E et al. Management and outcomes of very low birthweight. NEJM 2008; 358:1700–11. this resource:

70 Bancalari E. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia and surfactant. Biol Neonate 2001; 80 Suppl 1:7–13. this resource:

71 Welty SE. Rationale for antioxidant therapy in premature infants to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Nutr Rev 2001; 59(1 Pt 1):10–17. this resource:

72 Bancalari E. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia and surfactant. Biol Neonate 2001; 80 Suppl 1:7–13. this resource:

73 Rutkowska M. [Changes in the clinical picture of bronchopulmonary dysplasia] Med Wieku Rozwoj 2000; 4(2 Suppl 3):43–57. this resource:

74 Gnanaratnem J. Neonatal acute respiratory failure. Curr Opin Pediatr 2000; 12(3):227–32. this resource:

75 Winn HN. Neonatal pulmonary hypoplasia and perinatal mortality in patients with midtrimester rupture of amniotic membranes – a critical analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 182(6):1638–44. this resource:

76 Morag I et al. Excessive weight gain as a possible predictor of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants. Isr Med Assoc J 2007; 9(1):24–7. PubMed ID: 17274351. this resource:

77 Bin-Nun A et al. Oral probiotics prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight neonates. J Pediatr 2005; 147(2):192–6. PubMed ID: 16126048. this resource:

78 Scheifele DW. Comparison of two antibiotic regimens for neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. J Antimicrob Chemother 1987; 20(3):421–9. this resource:

79 Ververidis M. The clinical significance of thrombocytopenia in neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis. J Pediatr Surg 2001; 36(5):799–803. this resource:

80 Farnoff AA. Meconium aspiration: historical aspects. J Perinatol 2008; 28 Suppl 3:S3–7. PubMed ID:19057607. this resource:

81 Yeh TF. Core concepts: meconium aspiration syndrome: pathogenesis and current management. NeoReviews 2010; 11; e503–e512.;11/9/e503Find this resource:

82 Wylie J et al. Part 11: Neonatal resuscitation. 2010 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. Circulation. 2010; 122(16 Suppl 2):S516–38. PubMed ID: 20956259 this resource:

83 Vain NE et al. What (not) to do at and after delivery? Prevention and management of meconium aspiration syndrome. Early Hum Dev 2009; 85(10):621–6 PubMed ID: 19833461 this resource:

84 von Kries R et al. Oral mixed micellar vitamin K for prevention of late vitamin K deficiency bleeding. Arch Dis Child 2003; 88: F109–12. this resource:

85 Ansell P. Vitamin K policies and midwifery practice: questionnaire survey. BMJ 2001 May 12;322(7295):1148–52. this resource:

86 Shirahata A. Diagnosis of DIC in very low birth weight infants. Semin Thromb Hemost 1998;24(5):467–71. this resource:

87 Pugh M. DIC screening in the newborn. Neonatal Netw 1997; 16(7):57–60. this resource:

88 Kreuz W. Neonatal sepsis: a challenge in hemostaseology. Semin Thromb Hemost 1999; 25(6):531–5. this resource:

89 Saxonhouse MA et al. The evaluation and management of neonatal coagulation disorders. Semin Perinatol 2009; 33(1):52–65 PubMed ID: 19167582. this resource:

90 Shuster S. Duct disruption, a new explanation of miliaria. Acta Derm Venereol 1997; 77(1):1–3. PubMed ID: 9059666. this resource:

91 Straka BF et al. Congenital miliaria crystallina. Cutis 1991; 47(2):103–6. PubMed ID: 2001628. this resource:

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97 Tyson JE. Trophic feedings for parenterally fed infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; 3:CD000504. PubMed ID: 16034854. this resource:

98 McClure RJ. Randomised controlled study of clinical outcome following trophic feeding. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2000; 82(1):F29–33. this resource:

99 Bhave S. Pediatric parenteral nutrition in India. Indian J Pediatr 1999; 66(1 Suppl):S141–9. this resource:

100 Schanler RJ et al. Feeding strategies for premature infants: randomized trial of gastrointestinal priming and tube-feeding method. Pediatrics 1999; 103:434–9. this resource:

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109 Chandra RK. Prospective studies of the effect of breast feeding on incidence of infection and allergy. Acta Paediatr Scand 1979; 68(5):691–4. this resource:

110 WITHDRAWN. Cow’s milk protein avoidance and development of childhood wheeze in children with a family history of atopy.

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115 Fewtrell MS et al. Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: what is the evidence to support current recommendations? Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 85(2):635S–638S. PubMed ID: 17284769. this resource:

116 The WHO/UNICEF International Code.

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129 Shah PS et al. Breastfeeding or breast milk for procedural pain in neonates. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 3:CD004950. PubMed ID: 16856069. this resource:

130 Bellieni CV et al. Cry features reflect pain intensity in term newborns: an alarm threshold. Pediatr Res 2004; 55(1):142–6. PubMed ID: 14605260. this resource:

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176 The Cardiovascular System (fleshandbones)

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