Show Summary Details
Page of


Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 04 August 2020

Chapter 12: Trauma

1 James R et al. The occurrence of cervical fractures in victims of judicial hanging. Forensic Sci Int 1992; 54(1):81–91. PubMed ID: 1618457 this resource:

2 Grauer AL et al. Paleoepidemiology, healing, and possible treatment of trauma in the medieval cemetery population of St. Helen-on-the-Walls, York, England. Am J Phys Anthropol 1996; 100(4):531–44. PubMed ID: 8842326 this resource:

3 Dickinson G et al. Retrospective application of the NEXUS low-risk criteria for cervical spine radiography in Canadian emergency departments. Ann Emerg Med 2004; 43(4):507–14. PubMed ID: 15039695 this resource:

4 Bandiera G et al. The Canadian C-spine rule performs better than unstructured physician judgment. Ann Emerg Med 2003; 42(3), 395–402. PubMed ID: 12944893 this resource:

5 Raza M et al. Safe cervical spine clearance in adult obtunded blunt trauma patients on the basis of a normal multidetector CT scan—a meta-analysis and cohort study. Injury 2013; 44(11):1589–95. PubMed ID: 23856632 this resource:

6 Gustilo RB et al. Prevention of infection in the treatment of one thousand and twenty-five open fractures of long bones: retrospective and prospective analyses. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1976; 58(4):453–8. PubMed ID: 773941 this resource:

7 Peters MJ. Should smokers be refused surgery? BMJ 2007; 334(7583):20. PubMed ID: 17204799 this resource:

8 Sharkey K et al. Should patients with self-inflicted illness receive lower priority in access to healthcare resources? Mapping out the debate. J Med Ethics 2010; 36:661–5. PubMed ID: 20817816 this resource:

9 British Orthopaedic Association et al. BOAST 4: The Management of Severe Open Lower Limb Fractures. BOA, 2009

10 Cross MJ. Complications of total knee arthroplasty. Medscape, 2013

11 Ageno W et al. Prevention of in-hospital VTE: why can’t we do better? Lancet 2008; 371:361. PubMed ID: 18242395 this resource:

12 Bauer KA et al. Fondaparinux compared with enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after elective major knee surgery. N Engl J Med 2001; 345(18):1305–10. PubMed ID: 11794149 this resource:

13 Sinis N et al. [Memantine and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS): effects of treatment and cortical reorganisation] Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir 2006; 38(3):164–71. PubMed ID: 16883501 this resource:

14 Maihöfner CH et al. Mislocalization of tactile stimulation in patients with complex regional pain syndrome. J Neurol 2006; 253(6):772–9. PubMed ID: 16705476 this resource:


16 Cote MP et al. Rehabilitation of acromioclavicular joint separations: operative and nonoperative considerations. Clin Sports Med 2010; 29(2):213–28, vii. PubMed ID: 20226315 this resource:

















33 Hip fracture; NICE Clinical Guideline (June 2011)Find this resource:


35 Lafforgue P. Pathophysiology and natural history of avascular necrosis of bone. Joint Bone Spine 2006; 73(5):500–7. PubMed ID: 16931094 this resource:


37 Cornwall R et al. Nerve injury in traumatic dislocation of the hip. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2000; (377):84–91. Pub-Med ID: 10943188 this resource:




41 Parvizi J et al. Thirty-day mortality following hip arthroplasty for acute fracture. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2004; 86-A(9):1983–8. PubMedID: 15342761 this resource:

42 Parker MJ et al. Hip protectors for preventing hip fractures in older people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; 3:CD001255. PubMed ID: 16034859 this resource:

43 Nikku R et al. Operative treatment of primary patellar dislocation does not improve medium-term outcome: a 7-year follow-up report and risk analysis of 127 randomized patients. Acta Orthop 2005; 76(5):699–704. PubMedID: 16263618 this resource:

44 Linko E et al. Surgical versus conservative interventions for anterior cruciate ligament ruptures in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; 2:CD001356. PubMed ID: 15846618 this resource:

45 Peccin MS et al. Interventions for treating posterior cruciate ligament injuries of the knee in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; (2):CD002939. PubMed ID: 15846644 this resource:

46 Nepple JJ et al. Meniscal repair outcomes at greater than five years: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2012; 94(24):2222–7. PubMed ID: 23318612 this resource:



49 Watson TS et al. Treatment of Lisfranc joint injury: current concepts. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2010; 18(12):718–28. PubMed ID: 21119138 this resource:










59 Richardson M. Muscle atlas. UW Medical, Department of Radiology





64 McKinley W et al. Outcomes of early surgical management versus late or no surgical in-tervention after acute spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 85(11):1818–25. PubMed ID: 15520977 this resource:

65 American College of Chest Physicians. Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed. CHEST Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines, 2012

66 Geerts WH et al. Prevention of venous thromboembolism: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. Chest 2004; 126(3 Suppl):338S–400S. PubMed ID: 15383478 this resource:








74 Jamison J et al. Catheter policies for management of long term voiding problems in adults with neurogenic bladder disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 11:CD004375. PubMed ID: 24249436 this resource:

75 Silver JR. History of the treatment of spinal injuries. Postgrad Med J 2005; 81(952):108–14. PubMed ID: 15701743 this resource:

76 Sjögren K et al. The sexual experience in younger males with complete spinal cord in-jury. Scand J Rehabil Med Suppl 1983; 9():189–94. PubMed ID: 6585940 this resource:

77 Dean RC et al. Physiology of penile erection and pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction. Urol Clin North Am 2005; 32(4):379–v. PubMed ID: 16291031 this resource:

78 Barbonetti A et al. Erectile dysfunction is the main determinant of psychological distress in men with spinal cord injury. J Sex Med 2012; 9(3):830–6. PubMed ID: 22188659 this resource:

79 Sipski ML et al. Sexual arousal and orgasm in women: effects of spinal cord injury. Ann Neurol 2001; 49(1):35–44. PubMed ID: 11198294 this resource:

80 Harkema S et al Effect of epidural stimulation of the lumbosacral spinal cord on voluntary movement, standing, and assisted stepping after motor complete paraplegia: a case study. Lancet 2011; 377:1938–47. PubMed ID: 21601270 this resource:




84 Elbasiouny SM et al. Management of spasticity after spinal cord injury: current techniques and future directions. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2010; 24(1):23–33. PubMed ID: 19723923 this resource: