Show Summary Details
Page of

Obstetrics 

Obstetrics
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE (www.oxfordmedicine.com). © Oxford University Press, 2016. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 23 October 2019

Chapter 1: Obstetrics

1 Knight M et al. (Eds.) on behalf of MBRRACE- UK. Saving Lives, Improving Mothers’ Care - Lessons learned to inform future maternity care from the UK and Ireland Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths and Morbidity 2009–12. Oxford: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford; 2014. https://www.npeu.ox.ac.uk/downloads/files/mbrrace-uk/reports/Saving%20Lives%20Improving%20Mothers%20Care%20report%202014%20Full.pdfFind this resource:

2 Jewkes R. Intimate partner violence: causes and prevention. Lancet 2002; 359(9315):1423–9. PubMed ID: 11978358 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11978358Find this resource:

3 Office for National Statistics 2007. England & Wales http://216.239.59.104/search?q=cache:X4WmtCxjwngJ:www.statistics.gov.uk/pdfdir/frc0607.pdf+statistics+births+in+england+and+wales+2007&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1

4 Pittman J et al. Communication between members of the cardiac arrest team – a postal survey. Resuscitation 2001; 49(2):175–7. PubMed ID: 11382523 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11382523Find this resource:

5 Seitchik J. The management of functional dystocia in the first stage of labor. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1987; 30(1):42–9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3581558Find this resource:

6 RCOG. Umbilical cord prolapse (Green-top Guideline No. 50). RCOG; 2006 https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg50/

7 RCOG. Reduced fetal movements (Green-top Guideline 57). RCOG; 2011 https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg57/

8 van der Meer IM et al. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant non-Western women in The Hague, Netherlands. Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 84(2):350–3. PubMed ID: 16895882 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16895882Find this resource:

9 Hezelgrave N. Advising on travel during pregnancy. BMJ 2011; 342:1074–8 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21527456Find this resource:

10 RCOG. Use of Anti-D immununoglobulin for Rhesus D prophylaxis (Green-top Guideline 22). RCOG; 2011 https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg22/

11 Whitlow BJ et al. The value of sonography in early pregnancy for the detection of fetal abnormalities in an unselected population. BJOG 1999; 106(9):929–36. PubMed ID: 10492104 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10492104Find this resource:

12 Mol BWJ. Down’s syndrome, cardiac anomalies, and nuchal translucency Fetal heart failure might link nuchal translucency and Down’s syndrome. BMJ 1999;318:70–1 http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/318/7176/70?Find this resource:

13 Hyett J et al. Using fetal nuchal translucency to screen for major congenital cardiac defects at 10–14 weeks of gestation: population based cohort study. BMJ 1999; 318(7176):81–5. PubMed ID: 9880278 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9880278Find this resource:

14 Makrydimas G et al. Screening performance of first-trimester nuchal translucency for major cardiac defects: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003; 189:1330–5. PubMed ID: 14634564 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14634564Find this resource:

15 McAuliffe FM et al. Fetal cardiac defects and increased nuchal translucency thickness: a prospective study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191:1486–90 PubMed ID: 15507988 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15507988Find this resource:

16 Maymon R et al. The clinical evaluation and pregnancy outcome of euploid fetuses with increased nuchal translucency. Clin Genet 2004; 66:426–36. PubMed ID: 15479188 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15479188Find this resource:

17 Kagan KO et al. Dose dependency between cigarette consumption and reduced maternal serum PAPP-A levels at 11–13(+6) weeks of gestation. Prenat Diagn 2007; 27:849–53. PubMed ID: 17590888 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17590888Find this resource:

18 NICE. Multiple pregnancy: the management of twin and triplet pregnancies in the antenatal period (Clinical Guideline 129). NICE; 2011 http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg129

43 RCOG. Non-invasive Prenatal Testing for Chromosomal Abnormality using Maternal Plasma DNA (Scientific Impact Paper No. 15). RCOG; 2014 https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/sip_15_04032014.pdf

44 RCOG. Management of sickle cell disease in pregnancy (Green-top Guideline 61). RCOG; 2011 https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg61/

45 NICE. Caesarean section (Clinical Guideline 132). NICE; 2011 http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg132

46 NICE. Diabetes in pregnancy. NICE; 2008. http://pathways.nice.org.uk/pathways/diabetes-in-pregnancy

47 Stowers JM. Long-range implications for the mother. The Aberdeen experience. Diabetes 1985; 34 Suppl 2:106–10 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3888735Find this resource:

48 RCOG. Obstetric cholestasis (Green-top Guideline 43). RCOG; 2006. https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg43/

49 Health Protection Agency. UK standards for microbiology investigations. Vertical and perinatal transmission of hepatitis C. Virology 2011; 8:1–13 http://www.hpa.org.uk/webc/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1317131298833Find this resource:

50 RCOG. The diagnosis and treatment of malaria in pregnancy (Green-top Guideline 54B). RCOG; 2010 https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/gtg_54b.pdf

51 RCOG. The prevention of malaria in pregnancy (Green-top Guideline 54A). RCOG; 2010. https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/gtg_54a.pdf

52 ter Kuile FO et al. Effect of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance on the efficacy of intermittent preventive therapy for malaria control during pregnancy: a systematic review. JAMA 2007; 297:2603–16. PubMed ID: 17579229 http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=207561Find this resource:

53 Newman RD et al. Safety, efficacy and determinants of effectiveness of antimalarial drugs during pregnancy: implications for prevention programmes in Plasmodium falciparum-endemic sub-Saharan Africa. Trop Med Int Health 2003; 8(6):488–506. PubMed ID: 12791054 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12791054Find this resource:

54 White NJ. Intermittent presumptive treatment for malaria. PLoS Med 2005; 2(1):e3 http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.0020003Find this resource:

55 Roux CH et al. Pregnancy in rheumatology patients exposed to anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha therapy. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2007; 46:695–8. PubMed ID: 17158212 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17158212Find this resource:

56 Public Health England. Guidance on viral rash in pregnancy. HPA; 2011 http://www.hpa.org.uk/webc/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1294740918985

57 RCOG. Chickenpox in pregnancy (Green-top Guideline No. 13). RCOG; 2007 https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg13/

58 Bowman RJ et al. Operational comparison of single-dose azithromycin and topical tetracycline for trachoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2000; 41(13):4074–9 http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2162131Find this resource:

59 Bakshi D et al. Selective neonatal BCG vaccination. Acta Paediatr 2004; 93:1207–9. PubMed ID: 15384885 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15384885Find this resource:

60 Money DM et al. Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases Commitee. The prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2004; 26(9):826–40. PubMed ID: 15361281 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15361281Find this resource:

61 RCOG. Antenatal corticosteroids to reduce perinatal mortality and morbidity (Green-top Guideline No. 7). RCOG; 2010 https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg7/

62 The Antenatal Magnesium Sulphate for Neuroprotection Guideline Development Panel. Antenatal magnesium sulphate for neuroprotection guideline. University of Adelaide; 2010 http://www.adelaide.edu.au/arch/antenatalMagnesiumSulphateGuidlines.pdf

63 Resuscitation Council Guidelines 2010 page 125 http://www.resus.org.uk/

64 Crowther C et al. Repeat doses of prenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of preterm birth for preventing neonatal respiratory disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 3:CD003935. PubMed ID: 17636741 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17636741Find this resource:

65 Nuffield Council on Bioethics. Critical care decisions in fetal and neonatal medicine: ethical issues. Nuffield Council on Bioethics; 2006. http://nuffieldbioethics.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/CCD-web-version-22-June-07-updated.pdf

66 CEMACH. Perinatal mortality 2005. CEMACH; 2007. http://www.hqip.org.uk/national-programmes/a-z-of-clinical-outcome-review-programmes/cmace-reports/

67 NICE. Induction of labour (Clinical Guideline 70). NICE; 2008 http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG70/Guidance/pdf/English

68 Van Rheenen P. Delayed cord clamping and improved infant outcome. BMJ 2011; 343:1233 http://www.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=22089240Find this resource:

69 Weeks A et al. Oral misoprostol administration for labor induction. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2006; 49:658–71. PubMed ID: 16885670 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16885670Find this resource:

70 RCOG. Reducing risk of thrombosis and embolism in pregnancy and puerperium (Greentop Guideline 37a). RCOG; 2009 http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcogcorp/GTG37aReducingRiskThrombosis.pdf

71 Rustico MA et al. Managing twins discordant for fetal anomaly. Prenat Diagn 2005; 25(9):766–71. PubMed ID: 16170860 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16170860Find this resource:

72 RCOG. Perinatal risks associated with IVF (Scientific Impact Paper No. 8). RCOG; 2012 https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/sip8/

73 McLemon D. Lancet 2011; 342:34 http://www.thelancet.com/Find this resource:

74 RCOG. Placenta praevia, placenta accreta, vasa praevia: diagnosis and manangement (Green-top Guideline 27). RCOG; 2010 https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/gtg_27.pdf

75 Garel M. Psychological consequences of having triplets: a 4-year follow-up study. Fertil Steril 1997; 67(6):1162–5. PubMed ID: 9176462 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9176462Find this resource:

76 Garel M. Psychological reactions after multifetal pregnancy reduction: a 2-year follow-up study. Hum Reprod 1997; 12(3):617–22. PubMed ID: 9130770 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9130770Find this resource:

77 RCOG. External cephalic version (Green-top Guideline No. 20a). RCOG; 2006 https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/gt20aexternalcephalicversion.pdf

78 RCOG. Umbilical cord prolapse (Green-top Guideline No. 50). RCOG; 2006 https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg50/

79 Loudon JA et al. Changing trends in operative delivery performed at full dilatation over a 10-year period. J Obstet Gynaecol 2010; 30(4):370–5. PubMed ID: 20455720 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20455720Find this resource:

80 Gilbert WM et al. Associated factors in 1611 cases of brachial plexus injury. Obstet Gynecol 1999; 93(4):536–40. PubMed ID: 10214829 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10214829Find this resource:

81 Gosk J et al. Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy – etiopathogenesis, risk factors, prevention, prognosis. Ginekol Pol 2004; 75(10):814–20. PubMed ID: 15587915 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15587915Find this resource:

82 Poggi SH et al. Effect of operative vaginal delivery on the outcome of permanent brachial plexus injury. J Reprod Med 2003; 48(9):692–6. PubMed ID: 14562633 http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgibin/abstract.cgi?id=14562633&from=cqsrFind this resource:

83 NICE. Caesarean section (Clinical Guideline 132). NICE; 2011, reviewed 2014. http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg132

84 RCOG. Birth after previous Caesarean birth (Greentop Guideline No. 45). https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/gtg_45.pdf

85 Turner MJ et al. Uterine rupture and labour after a previous low transverse caesarean section. BJOG 2006; 113(6):729–32. PubMed ID: 16709218 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16709218Find this resource:

86 Ellmauer S. [Prophylaxis and therapy of the acid aspiration syndrome.] Anaesthesist 1987; 36(11):599–607. PubMed ID: 3322095 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3322095Find this resource:

87 RCOG. Late intrauterine fetal death and stillbirth (Green-top Guideline 55). RCOG; 2010 https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg55/

88 RCOG. Registration of stillbirths and certification for pregnancy loss before 24 weeks of gestation (Good Practice Paper 4). RCOG; 2005 https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/goodpractice4registrationstillbirth2005.pdf

89 Hall M. Chapter 4 in Why Mothers Die; Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health 2000–2. CEMACH; 2004 http://www.cemach.org.uk/Publications/CEMACHPublications/Maternal-and-Perinatal-Health.aspx

90 NICE. Intrapartum care (Clinical Guideline 55). NICE; 2007 https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg55

91 RCOG. Placenta praevia accreta & vasa praevia: diagnosis and management (Clinical Guideline 27). RCOG; 2011 http://www.rcog.org.uk/guidelines

92 RCOG. Diabetes in pregnancy. Are we providing the best care? RCOG; 2007Find this resource:

93 Hung WY et al. Postnatal urinary incontinence after caesarean section. Hong Kong J Gynaecol Obstet Midwifery 2010; 10:53–60 http://www.hkjgom.org/sites/default/files/pdf/v10-p53-OA1006.pdfFind this resource:

94 Wall LL. Obstetric vesicovaginal fistula as an international public-health problem. Lancet 2006; 368:1201–9. PubMed ID: 17011947 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17011947Find this resource:

96 NICE. Postnatal care up to 8 weeks after birth (Clinical Guideline 37). NICE; 2006 http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg37

97 Saving Mothers Lives: Reviewing mothers deaths to make motherhood safer 2006–2008. BJOG 2011; 118(Suppl 1):1–203. PubMed ID: 21356004 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1471-0528.2010.02847.x/abstractFind this resource:

98 Faculty of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care Clinical Effectiveness Unit. Contraceptive choices for breastfeeding women. Br J Fam Plan and Reprod 2004; 30:181–9 http://www.fsrh.org/pdfs/archive/breastfeeding04.pdfFind this resource:

99 Ronsmans C et al. Maternal mortality: who, when, where, and why. Lancet 2006; 368:1189–200. PubMed ID: 17011946 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17011946Find this resource:

100 Tandberg A et al. Trends in incidence and mortality for triplets in Norway 1967–2006: the influence of assisted reproductive technologies. BJOG 2010; 117:667–75 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20236102Find this resource:

101 Basso O et al. Subfecundity and neonatal mortality: longitudinal study within the Danish national birth cohort. BMJ 2005; 330:393–4. PubMed ID: 15695499 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15695499Find this resource:

102 CEMACH. Perinatal Mortality 2005. CEMACH; 2007 http://www.hqip.org.uk/national-programmes/a-z-of-clinical-outcome-review-programmes/cmace-reports/