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Surgical simulation 

Surgical simulation
Surgical simulation

Roger Kneebone

and Fernando Bello

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date: 09 May 2021

Surgical simulation has moved from being a means of practising specific technical skills to becoming a mainstream component of every surgeon’s training. Recognizing that technical skill is only one component of safe surgical practice, it offers the opportunity for safe, focused learning to complement and reinforce clinical experience. The chapter paints a broad picture of what surgical simulation can offer and why it is widely used, outlining philosophical questions about its role within surgical education. After summarizing key contributions from educational theory, current and innovative approaches are reviewed, recognizing that a new phase of simulation-based practice and research is unfolding, which takes into account the multiple perspectives of patients, clinicians, managers, and educationalists. Areas of likely growth are highlighted, speculating about where these might lead in the future.

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