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Fast Analytical Sensing Technology: Microelectrode-Based Recordings of Tonic and Phasic Neurotransmitter Signalling in the Mammalian Brain 

Fast Analytical Sensing Technology: Microelectrode-Based Recordings of Tonic and Phasic Neurotransmitter Signalling in the Mammalian Brain
Chapter:
Fast Analytical Sensing Technology: Microelectrode-Based Recordings of Tonic and Phasic Neurotransmitter Signalling in the Mammalian Brain
Author(s):

Michelle L. Humeiden

, Jorge E. Quintero

, John T. Slevin

, and Greg A. Gerhardt

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198714668.003.0037
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date: 23 October 2019

Communication in the nervous system is predominately chemical. However, understanding of neurotransmitter signalling in normal and diseased states remains lacking. Electrochemically based biosensors can detect chemical messengers on a near-real timescale, allowing exploration of neurotransmitter systems to bring into focus the functioning elements of this critical means of communication. Glutamate, the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, is an ideal candidate for measurement with biosensors. With biosensors, it has been found that spontaneous glutamate signals in the dentate gyrus are enhanced in kindled animals. Meanwhile, in a model of epilepsy, the utility of detecting and the dynamism of glutamate signalling become apparent as tonic glutamate levels and rapid, spontaneous phasic glutamate signals show a correlation with seizure activity in the CA1 region of rodents. The ability of these biosensors to detect neurotransmitters in the brain is promising for clinical applications to monitor and, eventually, treat epilepsy.

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