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The Standard Transoesophageal Examination 

The Standard Transoesophageal Examination
The Standard Transoesophageal Examination

Patrizio Lancellotti

and Bernard Cosyns

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date: 21 July 2019

Transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) is a semi-invasive procedure that harnesses the transoesophageal echo windows via a specialized probe to improve diagnostic accuracy if transthoracic imaging is not sufficient, or to allow echocardiographic examination and monitoring in circumstances where the transthoracic echo windows are not accessible, e.g., intra-operatively or during cardiac interventions. Main indications for TOE are the diagnosis of infective endocarditis, the identification of left atrial thrombi, in particular in the left atrial appendage before cardioversion, prosthetic valve dysfunction, aortic disease including dissection, intraoperative monitoring of valvular surgery, peri-interventional monitoring of interventions in structural heart disease, e.g. interventional mitral repair or transcatheter aortic valve implantation, and atrial septal defect closure. The chapter describes proper precautions and technique of TOE, standard views and recordings, as well as the most important imaging information and how to get it for the main TOE indications.

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