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Kidney disease 

Kidney disease
Chapter:
Kidney disease
Author(s):

Kate Wiles

, Kate Bramham

, and Catherine Nelson-Piercy

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198713333.003.0044
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date: 05 December 2020

This chapter describes the physiological adaptations to pregnancy in women with and without renal disease, reports pregnancy outcomes in women with both acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease, and discusses a management strategy for antenatal and peripartum care. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is difficult to define in pregnancy because of the physiological increase in glomerular filtration. A normal creatinine can mask renal injury in pregnancy. This chapter considers important causes of AKI in pregnancy including pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, thrombotic microangiopathy, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, systemic lupus erythematosus, urinary tract infection, and obstruction. The trend in the developed world for delaying pregnancy and the increasing prevalence of obesity mean that greater numbers of pregnancies will be complicated by chronic kidney disease. Maternal and fetal complications increase with worsening prepregnancy renal function including the development of pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, premature delivery, and fetal loss. Prepregnancy counselling and the intrapartum management for women with lupus nephritis, immunoglobulin A nephropathy, polycystic kidney disease, and diabetic nephropathy are discussed. Renal replacement therapies in pregnancy including both dialysis and renal transplantation are considered, and practical guidance on renal biopsy, anaesthesia, and the pharmacology of renal disease in pregnancy is offered.

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