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Cardiovascular problems 

Cardiovascular problems
Cardiovascular problems

Grenville Fox

, Nicholas Hoque

, and Timothy Watts

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date: 22 June 2021

This chapter describes the aetiology, presentation, investigation, and management of congenital heart disease (CHD) and acquired cardiovascular problems. It begins by describing the fetal circulation, transition to the neonatal circulation at birth, and the epidemiology of congenital heart disease. There is a guide to the diagnosis of congenital heart disease using a problem-based approach (heart failure, cyanosis, collapse and shock, heart murmurs), together with general principles of management including the use of inotropes, prostaglandin, and surgery. Types of structural heart disease are detailed and grouped according to functional consequences: left to right shunts, right to left shunts/cyanotic CHD, common mixing, and well and sick babies with an obstruction. Myocardial disease, hypertension, interpreting the ECG in neonates, and arrhythmias are also covered.

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