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Antenatal care, obstetrics, and fetal medicine 

Antenatal care, obstetrics, and fetal medicine
Antenatal care, obstetrics, and fetal medicine

Grenville Fox

, Nicholas Hoque

, and Timothy Watts

Page of

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date: 19 June 2021

This chapter contains details of methods used for screening and diagnosis of fetal anomalies using antenatal blood tests, ultrasound scanning, chorionic villous sampling, amniocentesis, and fetal blood sampling. There are sections on pre-existing maternal diseases presenting risks to the fetus including maternal diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, thrombocytopenia, and neuromuscular disease, as well as those specific to pregnancy—pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, and eclampsia. Intrauterine growth restriction and monitoring is covered in detail. The increased fetal risks of multiple birth due to twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome and other pregnancy complications are described, with detail on oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios, antepartum haemorrhage, preterm prelabour rupture of membranes, cord prolapse, preterm labour, and breech presentation. Intrapartum fetal assessment using electronic fetal monitoring and fetal blood sampling to diagnose fetal distress is covered to enable health professionals involved in care of the newborn to understand events which may have resulted in a baby born in poor condition.

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